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NXP provides support for a variety of embedded and server Linux distros in addition to the Layerscape components and hybrid Ubuntu support. NXP works together with various open-source communities like Yocto project, OpenWRT, ONIE/ONL, and OpenIL to ensure that support for NXP's platforms is available as part of the regular releases from these distro communities.    This section lists brief how-tos for Layerscape SDK (LSDK)   to help you modify/update individual LSDK components such as, U-Boot, Linux kernel, DPL, DPC, on a reference design board when booting the board from a specific boot source, such as QSPI or SD.  For example, these how-tos can be helpful if you wish to program a customized Linux kernel image on an SD card.   The section also provides basic Ethernet network interface information, such as Ethernet port mapping (Ethernet port names in U-Boot and Linux) and steps to create Ethernet interfaces in Linux.   LSDK - How-to topics   Booting medium How to topic All QorIQ Reference Design Boards NA LSDK memory layout for TF-A boot flow NA Flash layout for boot flow with PPA – LSDK 18.09 and older releases NA new How to measure temperature of CPU and stress individual cores of CPU NA new  How to measure power using sensors and stress individual cores NA  new How to extract kernel, rootfs, and dtb images from Linux ITB image NA new How to customize LITB image from LSDK NA new How to dynamically adjust MC log level using restool NA new How to boot Layerscape board using an empty DPL file NA new How to display MC log buffer in U-Boot, when MC console is not available NA new How to compile and execute custom applications on a Layerscape board  LS2088ARDB NA LS2088ARDB Ethernet port mapping QSPI flash   How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images in QSPI NOR flash How to deploy TF-A binaries in QSPI NOR flash NOR flash How to deploy TF-A binaries in NOR flash How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images in NOR flash LX2160ARDB NA How to configure a new flash device for a Layerscape board via CodeWarrior for ARMv8 LX2160ARDB Ethernet port mapping FlexSPI NOR flash   How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images in FlexSPI NOR flash How to deploy TF-A binaries in FlexSPI NOR flash FlexSPI NOR flash SD/eMMC How to update composite firmware in FlexSPI NOR Flash and SD/eMMC card using an SD card SD/eMMC How to update Linux kernel and device tree on SD card How to update Linux kernel and device tree on eMMC card How to deploy TF-A binaries on SD/eMMC card How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images on SD/eMMC card LS1043ARDB NA Ethernet and FMC port mapping NOR flash How to deploy TF-A binaries in NOR flash How to update DPAA1 FMan microcode (ucode) image in NOR flash SD card How to deploy TF-A binaries on SD card How to update Linux kernel and device tree on SD card How to update DPAA1 FMan microcode (ucode) image on SD card NAND flash How to deploy TF-A binaries in NAND flash LS1046ARDB NA Ethernet port mapping QSPI flash How to update U-Boot binary in QSPI NOR flash How to update DPAA1 FMan microcode (ucode) image in QSPI NOR flash How to update PBL/RCW binary in QSPI NOR flash How to update composite firmware image in QSPI NO R flash SD card How to update U-Boot binary on SD card How to update PBL/RCW binary on SD card How to update Linux kernel and device tree on SD card How to update DPAA1 FMan microcode (ucode) image on SD card LS1088ARDB/LS1088RDB-PB NA How to create a DPAA2 network interface (DPNI) in Linux Ethernet port mapping QSPI flash How to deploy TF-A binaries in QSPI NOR flash How to update PBL/RCW binary in QSPI NOR flash How to update composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash How to update U-Boot binary in QSPI NOR flash How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images in QSPI NOR flash SD card How to deploy TF-A binaries on SD card How to update PBL/RCW binary on SD card How to update U-Boot binary on SD card How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images on SD card How to update Linux kernel and device tree on SD card    
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LS1012A integrates a hardware packet forwarding engine to provide high performance Ethernet interfaces. This document introduces PFE hardware and software decomposition and data flow, setting up two PFE Ethernet ports to implement Ethernet packets forwarding through PFE, how to modify PFE driver and dts file to set up single PFE Ethernet port on LS1012A custom boards. PFE hardware Structure PFE Software Decomposition and Data Flow Setting up Two PFE Ethernet Ports to Implement Ethernet Packets Forwarding Set up Single PFE Ethernet Port on LS1012A Custom Boards
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OpenWrt is a highly extensible GNU/Linux distribution for embedded devices (typically wireless routers), OpenWrt is built from the ground up to be a full-featured, easily modifiable operating system for your router. LEDE is based on OpenWrt, targeting a wide range of wireless SOHO routers and non-network device. This document introduces how to porting and running OpenWrt/LEDE on QorIQ LS1012/LS1043 platform. 1. Porting OpenWrt/LEDE Source on QorIQ Layerscape Platforms 2. Deploy OpenWrt/LEDE Images to Boot up the System 3. Verify VLAN Interface and PFE in LEDE System
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In Linux, only one MAC is created by default as a standard kernel Ethernet interface. This interface is named  eth0  by default (or  eth1  if PCI Express network interface card  is  discovered first). The following figure shows the   Etherne t port  (ETH8) that  eth0  (or  eth1 )  corresponds to, on LS1088ARDB.  The following figure shows the   Etherne t port  (DPMAC5) that  eth0  (or  eth1 )  corresponds to, on LS1088ARDB-PB. Only one interface is created by default because in DPAA2, Ethernet ports need not be associated with Linux kernel Ethernet driver instances. For example, Ethernet ports can be assigned as ports on switches or can be allocated to user space. Furthermore, these associations can be made dynamically.  From Linux, you can list the available interfaces using the ifconfig -a command or the  ip link command . For example: $ ip link 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000     link/ether 68:05:ca:36:96:6a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 3: sit0@NONE: <NOARP> mtu 1480 qdisc noop qlen 1000     link/sit 0.0.0.0 brd 0.0.0.0 4: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000     link/ether 6e:01:3f:a2:04:b6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff In this example, Linux eth1 corresponds to Ethernet port DPMAC5 (ETH8) on LS1088ARDB . Create network interfaces Check the network interfaces that are currently available using Layerscape script ls-listni . For example: $ ls-listni dprc.1/dpni.0 (interface: eth1, end point: dpmac.5) The default interface DPNI.0 is configured with a minimal set of resources. For example, it can only receive traffic on GPP0 and its intended uses are network boot and low-bandwidth traffic. For fully-featured DPNI objects, dynamic configuration (explained in upcoming steps) is recommended. Optional - Unbind and destroy existing interface.   $ echo dpni.0 > /sys/bus/fsl-mc/drivers/fsl_dpaa2_eth/unbind $ restool dpni destroy dpni.0 dpni.0 is destroyed The restool utility is a Linux user space command that allows DPAA2 objects to be managed (created, destroyed, and queried for status). Add new network interfaces using Layerscape script ls-addni . For example: $ ls-addni dpmac.3 Created interface: eth1 (object:dpni.0, endpoint: dpmac.3) $ ls-addni dpmac.4 Created interface: eth2 (object:dpni.1, endpoint: dpmac.4)   Check that new interfaces are created using the  ifconfig -a  or   ip link   command . Enable the newly created interfaces using the  ifconfig command For example: ifconfig eth1 192.168.1.23 up ifconfig eth2 192.168.1.24 up Optional - Save current configuration to a Data Path Layout (DPL) file DPL file is used to create DPAA2 entities prior to Linux boot. To save the current configuration to a DPL file, follow the steps below. After creating the custom DPL, you can program it to the boot source (for example, QSPI NOR flash or SD card) so that the configuration is present automatically next time Linux boots. In this case, the existing DPL is replaced with the updated DPL file. Save this custom configuration to a DPL file (.dts format) on the board. $ restool dprc generate-dpl dprc.1 > <my_dpl>.dts Copy the DPL file to the Linux host machine. You can SCP the file from the board to the Linux host machine. Run following command to convert it to the .dtb format. $ dtc -I dts -O dtb <my_dpl>.dts -o <my_dpl>.dtb For steps to program the new DPL file in the QSPI NOR flash or on the SD card, see LS1088ARDB - How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images in QSPI NOR flash or LS1088ARDB/LS1088ARDB-PB - How to update MC firmware, DPC, and DPL images on SD card.
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This document introduces porting TDM Linux driver working in internal loopback mode to do verification during custom boards bringing up and verification stage. 1. TDM Interface Configuration to Support Internal Loopback Mode 2. Modify Linux Kernel Driver to Make TDM Working in Internal Loopback Mode 3. Build TDM Driver into Linux Kernel and do verification on the target board
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The integrated flash controller (IFC) is used to interface with external asynchronous/synchronous NAND flash, asynchronous NOR flash, SRAM, generic ASIC memory and EPROM. This document introduces how to configure IFC controller on QorIQ LS, T and P series custom boards, uses LS1043 custom board integrating NAND Flash MT29F64G08CBCBBH1 as an example to demonstrate IFC flash timing parameters calculation and control registers configuration, CodeWarrior initialization file customization and u-boot source code porting. 1. IFC Memory Mapped Registers Introduction 2. Calculate IFC Flash Timing Values and Configure Control Registers 3. Customize CodeWarrior Initialization File with the Calculated IFC Timing 4. Porting U-BOOT Source with the Calculated IFC Timing
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Please note that the LSDK memory layout for TF-A boot flow explained in this topic is only applicable for  LSDK 18.12 and newer releases.  The following table shows the memory layout of various firmware stored in NOR/NAND/QSPI flash device or SD card on all QorIQ Reference Design Boards. When the board boots from NOR flash, the NOR bank from which the board boots is considered as the "current bank" and the other bank is considered as the "alternate bank". For example, if LS1043ARDB boots from NOR bank 4, to update an image on NOR bank 0, you need to use the "alternate bank" address range,0x64000000 - 0x64F00000. Firmware Definition MaxSize Flash Offset (QSPI/NAND flash) Absolute address  (NOR bank 0 on LS1043ARDB, LS1021ATWR) Absolute address  ( NOR bank 4 LS1043ARDB, LS1021ATWR) Absolute address (NOR bank 0   on   LS2088ARDB ) Absolute address ( NOR bank 4  on  LS2088ARDB) SD Start Block No. RCW + PBI + BL2 (bl2.pbl) 1 MiB 0x00000000 0x60000000 0x64000000 0x580000000 0x584000000 0x00008 ATF FIP Image (fip.bin) BL31 + BL32 + BL33 4 MiB 0x00100000 0x60100000 0x64100000 0x580100000 0x584100000 0x00800 Boot firmware environment 1 MiB 0x00500000 0x60500000 0x64500000 0x580500000 0x584500000 0x02800 Secure boot headers 2 MiB 0x00600000 0x60600000 0x64600000 0x580600000 0x584600000 0x03000 Secure header or DDR PHY FW 512 KiB 0x00800000 0x60800000 0x64800000 0x580800000 0x584800000 0x04000 Fuse provisioning header 512 KiB 0x00880000 0x60880000 0x64880000 0x580880000 0x584880000 0x04400 DPAA1 FMAN ucode 256 KiB 0x00900000 0x60900000 0x64900000 0x580900000 0x584900000 0x04800 QE/uQE firmware 256 KiB 0x00940000 0x60940000 0x64940000 0x580940000 0x584940000 0x04A00 Ethernet PHY firmware 256 KiB 0x00980000 0x60980000 0x64980000 0x580980000 0x584980000 0x04C00 Script for flashing image 256 KiB 0x009C0000 0x609C0000 0x649C0000 0x5809C0000 0x5849C0000 0x04E00 DPAA2-MC or PFE firmware 3 MiB 0x00A00000 0x60A00000 0x64A00000 0x580A00000 0x584A00000 0x05000 DPAA2 DPL 1 MiB 0x00D00000 0x60D00000 0x64D00000 0x580D00000 0x584D00000 0x06800 DPAA2 DPC 1 MiB 0x00E00000 0x60E00000 0x64E00000 0x580E00000 0x584E00000 0x07000 Device tree(needed by uefi) 1 MiB 0x00F00000 0x60F00000 0x64F00000 0x580F00000 0x584F00000 0x07800 Kernel lsdk_linux.itb 16 MiB 0x01000000 NA NA NA NA 0x08000 Ramdisk rfs 32 MiB 0x02000000 NA NA NA NA 0x10000 The following figures highlight the changes in the flash layout for previous boot flow (with PPA) and flash layout for TF-A boot flow. Flash layout for previous boot flow (with PPA)   Changed flash layout for TF-A boot flow
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This how-to topic is applicable for only LSDK 18.09 and older releases. Follow these steps to update the U-Boot binary in QSPI NOR flash.  Prerequisites  Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit should be installed on the Linux host machine for building LSDK 18.0 6 or LSDK 18.09 U- Boot binary . cpld reset boots the board from QSPI NOR flash0 and cpld reset altbank   boots the board from QSPI NOR flash1. sf probe 0:1 means that the alternate bank will be written to. So, if the board boots from QSPI NOR flash0 and sf probe 0:1 is entered at the U-Boot prompt, the commands that follow will program QSPI NOR flash1.   Compiling U-Boot binary Clone the  u-boot   repository. $ git clone https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/u-boot.git $  cd  u-boot $  git checkout  -b <new branch name>  LSDK-<LSDK version> . For example,  $  git checkout  -b LSDK-18.09  LSDK-18.09   $ export  ARCH=arm64 $ export CROSS_COMPILE= aarch64-linux-gnu- $ make  distclean $ make ls10 46ardb_qspi _defconfig If required, make changes to the   U -Boot   files. $ make If the   make   command shows the error " *** Your GCC is older than 6.0 and is not supported ", ensure that you are using Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit version for building LSDK 1 8.06 or LSDK 18.09 U-B oot binary.  The compiled U-Boot image, u- boot .bin , is available in the directory  u-boot / . Flashing U-Boot   binary   to   QSPI NOR flash U-Boot image can be loaded to LS1046ARDB from a TFTP server or from a mass storage device (SD, USB, or SATA). Option 1: Load image from the TFTP server Boot LS1046ARDB from QSPI. Ensure that the switches are set to boot the board from QSPI.  For booting from QSPI ,   SW5[1:8] = 00100010 Boot from QSPI NOR flash0:  => cpld reset In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 0 Set up Ethernet connection When the board boots up, U-Boot prints a list of enabled Ethernet interfaces. FM1@DTSEC3 [PRIME], FM1@DTSEC4, FM1@DTSEC5, FM1@DTSEC6, FM1@TGEC1, FM1@TGEC2 Set server IP to the IP of the host machine on which you have configured the TFTP server.  => setenv serverip <ipaddress1> Set ethact and ethprime as the Ethernet interface connected to the TFTP server. See  LS1046ARDB Ethernet port mapping   for the mapping of Ethernet port names appearing on the chassis front panel with the port names in U-Boot and Linux. =>  setenv ethprime <name of interface connected to TFTP server> For example: => setenv ethprime FM1@DTSEC4 => setenv ethact <name of interface connected to TFTP server> For example: => setenv ethact FM1@DTSEC4 Set IP address of the board. You can set a static IP address or, if the board can connect to a dhcp server, you can use the   dhcp   command. Static IP address assignment: => setenv ipaddr <ipaddress2> => setenv netmask <subnet mask> Dynamic IP address assignment: => dhcp Save the settings. =>  saveenv Check the connection between the board and the TFTP server. => ping $serverip Using  FM1@DTSEC4 device host 192.168.1.1 is alive Load U-Boot image from the TFTP server Program QSPI NOR flash1 :  =>  sf probe 0:1 Flash U-Boot image: => tftp 0xa0000000 u-boot.bin => print   filesize filesize=ae84a Program U-Boot image to QSPI NOR flash:  =>  sf erase 0x1 00000 +$ fil esize  && sf write 0xa0000000 0x1 00000 $ filesize Address 0x100000  is the location of U-Boot in QSPI NOR flash.   Refer Flash layout for boot flow with PPA – LSDK 18.09 and older releases  for  t he complete flash memory layout. Boot from QSPI NOR flash1 : => cpld reset altbank In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 4 Ensure that SD card, USB flash drive, or SCSI hard disk installed with LSDK Ubuntu distribution is plugged into the board to boot the board to Ubuntu. If U-Boot does not find LSDK on a mass storage device, it will boot TinyDistro from   lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb   stored in QSPI NOR flash. Option 2: Load image from partition on mass storage device (SD, USB, or SATA) Boot LS1046ARDB from QSPI NOR flash. Ensure that the switches are set to boot the board from QSPI.  For booting from   QSPI ,   SW5[1:8] =  00100010 Boot from QSPI NOR flash0:  => cpld reset In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 0 Select mass storage device to use. => mmc rescan => mmc info Or => usb start => usb info Or => scsi scan => scsi info Optional – List files on storage device => ls mmc <device:partition> For example: => ls mmc 0:3 System Volume Information/ 714826 u-boot.bin 1 file(s), 1 dir(s) Or => ls usb <device:partition> For example: => ls usb 0:1 Or => ls scsi <device:partition> For example: => ls scsi 0:2 If the ls command fails to run, check that U-Boot in QSPI NOR flash0 supports the command by typing ls at the U-Boot prompt: => ls ls - Lists files in a directory (default) Usage: ls <interface> [<dev[:part]> [directory]] - Lists files in directory [directory] of partition [part] on device type [interface] and instance [dev] . If U-Boot does not support this command, then update the composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash0. For steps to update composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash, see LS1046ARDB - How to update composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash. Program QSPI NOR flash1 :  => sf probe 0:1 Load U-Boot image from the storage device. => load mmc <device:partition> a0000000 <image name> => print filesize For example: => load mmc 0:3 a0000000 u-boot.bin 714826 bytes read in 52 ms (13.1 MiB/s) => print filesize filesize=ae84a Or => load usb <device:partition> a0000000 <image name> => print filesize Or => load scsi <device:partition> a0000000 <image name> => print filesize Program U-Boot image to QSPI NOR flash:  =>   sf erase 0x1 00000 +$ fil esize  && sf write 0xa0000000 0x1 00000 $ filesize Address 0x100000  is the location of U-Boot in QSPI NOR flash.  Refer Flash layout for boot flow with PPA – LSDK 18.09 and older releases for the complete flash memory layout. Boot from QSPI NOR flash1 : =>   cpld reset altbank In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 4 Ensure that SD card, USB flash drive, or SCSI hard disk installed with LSDK Ubuntu distribution is plugged into the board to boot the board to Ubuntu. If U-Boot does not find LSDK on a mass storage device, it will boot TinyDistro from   lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb   stored in QSPI NOR flash.
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This document introduces how to configure RCW to support GPIO on LS1043 platform, how to configure Linux Kernel to load Linux GPIO driver to access GPIO from SYSFS and using loopback method to do verification on the target board. RCW configuration to support GPIO Configure GPIO driver in Linux Kernel Verify GPIO on the target board
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QorIQ LSDK is NXP new generation of SDK for Layerscape productions, consists of a set of disaggregated components based on Linux distributions, meets market demand to more Linux distributions of more types, and satisfy the requirement from a wide variety of customers. In LSDK we use Flexbuild to build all packages from LSDK, make root filesystem and generate the installer. This document introduces the basic concept of LSDK, comparison between LSDK and Yocto SDK, how to use LSDK, plan and roadmap of LSDK. 1. Basic Concept of LSDK 1.1 LSDK Specific features 1.2 LSDK Components 1.3 LSDK Images Memory Map 2. Comparison Between Layerscape SDK and QorIQ Yocto SDK 3. How to Usage LSDK 3.1 LSDK Flexbuild Utility 3.2 Build LSDK using Flexbuild 3.3 Deploy LSDK Images on the Target Board 3.4 Add a Package using Flexbuild 4. Layerscape SDK Roadmap
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Follow these steps to update the Linux kernel image and device tree on the SD card.  Compiling Linux kernel images and device tree On the Linux host, clone the repository with Linux kernel image and device tree: $  git clone  https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/linux $ cd linux $ git checkout -b <new branch> <start point> For example, $ git checkout -b LSDK-18.09-V4.14 LSDK-18.09-V4.14 where  LSDK-18.09-V4.14  refers to a tag in the format  LSDK-<LSDK version>-V<kernel version> $   make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- defconfig lsdk.config If you want to make changes to device tree, open and edit arch/arm64/boot/dts/freescale/fsl-ls1046a-rdb.dts $   make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- The binary kernel image Image  and compressed kernel image Image.gz  are in arch/arm64/boot/ . The device tree blob fsl-ls1046a-rdb.dtb  is in arch/arm64/boot/dts/freescale/ . Copying the compiled kernel images and device tree to SD card Plug the SD card into the Linux host machine. List the disks that are accessible to the computer:  $ cat /proc/partitions Use the command cat /proc/partitions to see a list of devices and their sizes to make sure that the correct device names have been chosen.  The SDHC storage drive in the Linux PC is detected as /dev/sdX, where X is a letter such as a, b, c. Make sure to choose the correct device name, because data on this device will be replaced.  If your Linux host machine supports read/write SDHC card directly without an extra SDHC card reader device, the device name of SDHC card is typically mmcblk0. Mount the SD card partition that contains Linux kernel images and device tree: $ sudo mount /dev/sdX   <mount_location> Replace   Image ,   Im age.gz , and  fsl-ls1046a-rdb.dtb  on the SD card with the new files compiled in the steps above. sudo cp linux/arch/arm64/boot/Image linux/arch/arm64/boot/Image.gz linux/arch/arm64/boot/dts/freescale/fsl-ls1046a-rdb.dtb <mount_location> sudo umount /dev/sdX Plug the SD card into   LS1046ARDB   and boot the board to Ubuntu using the SD card:  => cpld reset sd In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from SD If U-Boot does not find LSDK on the SD card, it will boot   TinyDistro from  lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb   stored on the SD card.
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IEEE Std 1588 standard is for a precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control, define a Precision Time Protocol (PTP) designed to synchronize real-time clocks in a distributed system. This document introduces IEEE 1588 related basic concept and Precision Time Protocol, hardware assist for 1588 compliant time stamping on QorIQ  LS1021 platform, Linux Kernel PTP framework device driver implementation working with ptpd stack, IEEE 1588 test setup on LS1021ATSN platform and results. IEEE 1588 Introduction and Precision Time Protocol Hardware Assist for 1588 Compliant Time Stamping on QorIQ LS1021 Platform      2.1 Accessing Timer Registers      2.2. Time-Stamping on Ethernet Frame Reception for eTSEC      2.3. Time-Stamping on Ethernet Frame Transmission for eTSEC IEEE 1588 PTP Linux Device Driver and PTPd Application     3.1 IEEE 1588 Linux Software Structure     3.2 IEEE 1588 Linux Device Driver 3.3 PTPd Application Setup IEEE 1588 test on LS1021ATSN Platform    4.1 Build Images with OpenIL    4.2 Setup IEEE 1588 test environment on LS1021ATSN    4.3 Test result
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This how-to topic is applicable only to LSDK 18.09 and older releases. For LSDK 18.12 and newer releases, refer   Deploying TF-A binaries  in  Layerscape Software Development Kit <version> Documentation . Follow these steps to update the PBL/RCW binary on the SD card.  Compiling PBL binary  from RCW source file (optional) If the user already has a PBL binary, this step can be skipped.    Clone the   rcw   repository and compile the PBL binary.   $ git clone https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/rcw $  cd rcw $  git checkout  -b <new branch name>  <LSDK tag> .  For example, $  git checkout  -b LSDK-18.09  LSDK-18.09   $ cd ls1046ardb If required, make changes to the rcw files. $ make   The default PBL binary for LS1046ARDB is  RR_FFSSPPPH_1133_5559/rcw_1800_qspiboot.bin.swapped. By default, the QSPI controller on LS1046A reads/writes in 64-bit big endian (BE) mode. This makes it necessary to use a byte swapped PBL binary image, for example, rcw_1800_qspiboot.bin.swapped. The last PBI command in rcw_1800_qspiboot.bin.swapped is a write to the QPSI_MCR register that changes the endianness of QSPI controller to 64-bit little endian (LE). With this change, subsequent accesses are made in little endian format. See the  rcw/ls1046ardb/README  file for an explanation of the naming convention for the directories that contain the RCW source and binary files. SD card start block number for PBL/RCW binary Image  SD card start block number PBL/RCW binary 0x00008 = 8 Refer the  Flash layout for boot flow with PPA – LSDK 18.09 and older releases  for a complete listing of the SD card start block numbers for all LSDK firmware images.    Programming PBL/RCW binary to SD card Plug the SD card into the Linux host . Run the following command on the Linux host: $ sudo dd if= rcw_1800_qspiboot.bin.swapped of=/dev/sdX bs=512 seek=8 conv=fsync Use the command cat /proc/partitions to see a list of devices and their sizes to make sure that the correct device names have been chosen. The SDHC storage drive in the Linux PC is detected as /dev/sdX, where X is a letter such as a, b, c. Make sure to choose the correct device name, because data on this device will be replaced. If your Linux host machine supports read/write SDHC card directly without an extra SDHC card reader device, the device name of SDHC card is typically mmcblk0.                     Remove the SD card from the Linux host machine. Plug the SD card into LS1046ARDB and boot the board to Ubuntu using the SD card. You can boot the board using the SD card either by: setting the switches:  SW3[1:8] = 01001110 and SW5 [1:8] = 00100000 , or boot switching to SD card  => cpld reset sd In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from SD If U-Boot does not find LSDK on the SD card, it will boot TinyDistro from  lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb  stored on the SD card.
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Trusted Firmware for Cortex-A (TF-A) is an implementation of EL3 secure firmware. TF-A replaces PPA in secure firmware role. Please note the steps listed in this topic can only be performed with  LSDK 18.12 and newer releases.                       To migrate to the TF-A boot flow from the previous boot flow (with PPA), you need to compile the TF-A binaries,  bl2_<boot_mode>. pbl and fip.bin , and flash these binaries on the specific boot medium on the board. For NOR boot, you need to compile the following TF-A binaries. TF-A binary name Components bl2_nor BL2 binary: Platform initialization binary RCW binary for NOR boot  fip.bin BL31: Secure runtime firmware BL32: Trusted OS, for example, OPTEE (optional) BL33: U-Boot/UEFI image Follow these steps to compile and deploy TF-A  binaries ( bl2_nor. pbl   and   fip.bin)  on the NOR flash. Compile PBL binary from RCW source file Compile U-Boot binary [Optional] Compile OPTEE binary  Compile TF-A binaries ( bl2_nor. pbl   and   fip.bin)  for NOR boot Program TF-A binaries to the NOR flash Step 1: Compile PBL binary  from RCW source file You need to compile the rcw_1600.bin  binary to build the bl2_nor.pbl binary. Clone the   rcw  repository and compile the PBL binary.   $ git clone https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/rcw $  cd rcw $  git checkout  -b <new branch name>  <LSDK tag> .  For example, $  git checkout  -b LSDK-19.03  LSDK-19.03   $ cd ls1043ardb If required, make changes to the rcw files. $ make   The compiled PBL binary for NOR boot on  LS1043ARDB,  rcw_1600.bin , is available at rcw/ls1043ardb/RR_FQPP_1455/ .    See the  rcw/ls1043ardb/README  file for an explanation of the naming convention for the directories that contain the RCW source and binary files. Step 2: Compile U-Boot binary You need to compile the u-boot.bin binary to build the  fip.bin binary. Clone the  u-boot   repository and compile the U-Boot binary for TF-A. $  git clone  https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/u-boot.git $  cd  u-boot $  git checkout  -b <new branch name>  LSDK-<LSDK version> .   For example,  $  git checkout  -b LSDK-19.03  LSDK-19.03   $   export  ARCH=arm64 $   export CROSS_COMPILE= aarch64-linux-gnu- $   make  distclean $  make ls1043ardb_tfa_defconfig $   make If the  make  command shows the error   "*** Your GCC is older than 6.0 and is not supported" , ensure that you are using Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit version for building the LSDK 18.12 U-Boot binary.                                  The compiled U-Boot binary,  u-boot .bin , is available at   u-boot / . Step 3: [Optional] Compile OPTEE binary  You need to compile the tee.bin binary to build fip.bin  with OPTEE. However, OPTEE is optional, you can skip the procedure to compile OPTEE i f you want to build the FIP binary without OPTEE. Clone the optee_os repository and build the OPTEE binary.  $   git clone https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/optee_os $   cd optee_os $ git checkout  -b <new branch name>  LSDK-<LSDK version> .   For example,  $  git checkout  -b LSDK-19.03  LSDK-19.03 $ export  ARCH=arm $   export CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- $ make CFG_ARM64_core=y PLATFORM=ls-ls1043ardb $ aarch64-linux-gnu-objcopy -v -O binary out/arm-plat-ls/core/tee.elf out/arm-plat-ls/core/tee.bin The compiled OPTEE image, tee.bin , is available at  optee_os/out/arm-plat-ls/core/. Step 4: Compile TF-A binaries for NOR boot Clone the atf repository and compile the TF-A binaries,  bl2_nor. pbl   and   fip.bin . $ git clone https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/atf $ cd atf $  git checkout  -b <new branch name>  LSDK-<LSDK version> .   For example,  $  git checkout  -b LSDK-19.03  LSDK-19.03 $ export ARCH=arm64 $ export CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- Build BL2 binary with OPTEE. $ make PLAT=ls1043ardb bl2 SPD=opteed BOOT_MODE=nor BL32= <path_to_optee_binary>/ tee.bin pbl RCW= <path_to_rcw_binary> /rcw_1600.bin The compiled BL2 images,  bl2.bin and bl2_nor.pbl are available at atf/build/ls1043ardb/release/ . For any update in the BL2 source code or RCW binary, the  bl2_nor.pbl  binary needs to be recompiled. To compile the BL2 binary without OPTEE: $  make PLAT=ls1043ardb bl2  BOOT_MODE=nor pbl RCW= <path_to_rcw_binary>/ rcw_1600.bin                  Build FIP binary with OPTEE and without trusted board boot. $ make PLAT=ls1043ardb fip BL33= <path_to_u-boot_binary> /u-boot.bin SPD=opteed BL32= <path_to_optee_binary> /tee.bin The compiled BL31 and FIP binaries,  bl31.bin ,  fip .bin , are available at  atf/build/ls1043ardb/release/ . For any update in the BL31, BL32, or BL33 binaries, the  fip.bin  binary needs to be recompiled. To compile the FIP binary without OPTEE and without trusted board boot: $ make PLAT=ls1043ardb fip BOOT_MODE=nor BL33= <path_to_u-boot_binary>/ u-boot.bin To compile the FIP binary with trusted board boot, refer the read me at <atf repository>/plat/nxp/README.TRUSTED_BOOT                               Step 5: Program TF-A binaries to NOR flash Boot   LS1043ARDB  from NOR flash. Ensure that the switches are set to boot the board from NOR bank 0.  For booting from NOR bank 0 , switch settings are as follows: SW3[1:8] = 10110011 SW4[1:8] = 00010010 SW5[1:8] = 10100010 Boot from  NOR bank  0:  => cpld reset For LS1043ARDB, in boot log, you'll see: Board: LS1043ARDB, boot from vBank 0   Set up Ethernet connection When board boots up, U-Boot prints a list of enabled Ethernet interfaces. FM1@DTSEC1, FM1@DTSEC2, FM1@DTSEC3 [PRIME], FM1@DTSEC4, FM1@DTSEC5 Set server IP address to the IP address of the host machine on which you have configured the TFTP server.  => setenv serverip <ipaddress1> Set ethact and ethprime as the Ethernet interface connected to the TFTP server. See   LS1043ARDB Ethernet and FMC port mapping   for the mapping of Ethernet port names appearing on the chassis front panel w ith the port names in U-Boot and Linux.                                                   =>  setenv ethprime <name of interface connected to TFTP server> For example: =>   setenv ethprime FM1@DTSEC4 =>   setenv ethact <name of interface connected to TFTP server> For example: =>   setenv ethact FM1@DTSEC4 Set IP address of the board. You can set a static IP address or, if the board can connect to a dhcp server, you can use the   dhcp   command.  Static IP address assignment: => setenv ipaddr <ipaddress2> => setenv netmask <subnet mask> Dynamic IP address assignment: => dhcp Save the settings.   =>  saveenv Check the connection between the board and the TFTP server. => ping $serverip Using FM1@DTSEC4 device host 192.168.1.1 is alive   Load TF-A binaries from the TFTP server For details about the flash image layout for TF-A binaries, refer LSDK memory layout for TF-A boot flow.                               Flash bl2_nor.pbl  in NOR bank 4. => tftp 82000000 bl2_nor.pbl => erase 64000000 +$filesize;cp.b 82000000 64000000 $filesize Flash fip.bin  in NOR bank 4. => tftp 82000000 fip.bin =>  erase 64100000 +$filesize;cp.b 82000000 64100000 $filesize Boot from NOR  bank 4 :   => cpld  reset altbank LS1043ARDB will boot with TF-A. In the boot log, you will see: NOTICE: 2 GB DDR4, 32-bit, CL=11, ECC off NOTICE: BL2: v1.5(release):LSDK-19.03 NOTICE: BL2: Built : 14:43:06, Jun 12 2019 NOTICE: BL31: v1.5(release):LSDK-19.03 NOTICE: BL31: Built : 14:44:16, Jun 12 2019 NOTICE: Welcome to LS1043 BL31 Phase U-Boot 2018.09 (May 23 2019 - 14:35:16 +0530) SoC: LS1043AE Rev1.1 (0x87920011) Clock Configuration: CPU0(A53):1600 MHz CPU1(A53):1600 MHz CPU2(A53):1600 MHz CPU3(A53):1600 MHz Bus: 400 MHz DDR: 1600 MT/s FMAN: 500 MHz Reset Configuration Word (RCW): 00000000: 08100010 0a000000 00000000 00000000 00000010: 14550002 80004012 e0025000 c1002000 00000020: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00038800 00000030: 00000000 00001101 00000096 00000001 Model: LS1043A RDB Board Board: LS1043ARDB, boot from vBank 4 .......
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The attached patch is to support Aquantia AQR107 in LS1043A.
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This how-to topic is applicable only to LSDK 18.09 and older releases. For LSDK 18.12 and newer releases, refer Deploying TF-A binaries in Layerscape Software Development Kit <version> Documentation. Follow these steps to update U-Boot binary on the SD card.  Prerequisites  Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit should be installed on the Linux host machine for building LSDK 18.06 or LSDK 18.09 U-Boot binary .   Compiling U-Boot binary Clone the  u-boot   repository. $ git clone  https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/u-boot.git $  cd  u-boot $  git checkout  -b <new branch name>  LSDK-<LSDK version> .   For example,  $  git checkout  -b LSDK-18.09  LSDK-18.09   $  export  ARCH=arm64 $  export CROSS_COMPILE= aarch64-linux-gnu- $  make  distclean $ make ls1046ardb_sdcard_defconfig If required, make changes to the U-Boot files. $ make If the  make  command shows the error "*** Your GCC is older than 6.0 and is not supported" , ensure that you are using Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit version for building LSDK 18.06 or LSDK 18.09 U-Boot binary.         The compiled U-Boot image, u-boot-with-spl-pbl.bin , is available at   u-boot / . You need to use  u-boot-with-spl-pbl.bin because f or SD boot, ls104x devices use different way for bootloader from ls1088/ls2088/lx2160 devices. SD card start block number for U-Boot binary Image  SD card start block number U-Boot PBL binary 0x00008 = 8 Refer the Flash layout for boot flow with PPA – LSDK 18.09 and older releases for a complete listing of the SD card start block numbers for all LSDK firmware images. Programming U-Boot binary to SD card Plug the SD card into the Linux host . Run the following command on the Linux host: $ sudo dd if=u-boot-with-spl-pbl.bin of=/dev/sdX bs=512 seek=8 conv=fsync Use the command cat /proc/partitions to see a list of devices and their sizes to make sure that the correct device names have been chosen. The SDHC storage drive in the Linux PC is detected as /dev/ sdX, where X is a letter such as a, b, c. Make sure to choose the correct device name, because data on this device will be replaced. If your Linux host machine supports read/write SDHC card directly without an extra SDHC card reader device, the device name of SDHC card is typically mmcblk0.              Remove the SD card from the Linux host machine. Plug the SD card into LS1046ARDB and boot the board to Ubuntu using the SD card. You can boot the board using the SD card either by: setting the switches: SW3[1:8] =   01001110   and   SW5 [1:8] = 00100000 , or boot switching to SD card:   => cpld reset sd In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from SD If U-Boot does not find LSDK on the SD card, it will boot   TinyDistro from  lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb  stored on the SD card.
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Getting RCW image: Getting UEFI image:                              Getting PPA image: Getting Linux kernel and DTB, and Root FS images: - Download Image ,  fsl-ls1043a-uefi-rdb.dtb and fsl-image-core-ls1043ardb.ext2.gz . -  Copy Image and fsl-image-core-ls1043ardb.ext2.gz to the TFTP server directory. Getting GRUB2 image for AARCH64 and sample GRUB configuration: - Download grub image from this location . - Download sample grub configuration from here . Placing GRUB image on FAT formatted SD card: Install FAT32 file system on SD card - Use the DISKPART utililty on windows command prompt to format a SD card with FAT32 file system. Use the following snapshot for reference - Copy grubaa64.efi and ls1043a-grub.cfg to the SD card. Booting to UEFI prompt on LS1043a RDB Board: Boot to u-boot prompt from NOR flash bank 0 on LS1043a RDB.  Setup serial port connection on host machine, to capture logs from the target LS1043a RDB board.. Reset the board to boot u-boot on bank 0, assuming that there is a valid u-boot image flashed on the primary bank 0. Copy Images to NOR flash alternate bank using u-boot commands sete uefi 'tftp 80000000 LS1043ARDB_EFI.fd; erase 0x64400000 0x644FFFFF ; cp.b 80000000 0x64400000 $filesize' sete rcw 'tftp 80000000 rcw_uefi_1500.bin; erase 0x64000000 0x640FFFFF ; cp.b 80000000 0x64000000 $filesize' sete ppa 'tftp 80000000 ppa.itb; erase 0x64500000 0x645FFFFF ; cp.b 80000000 0x64500000 $filesize' sete dtb 'tftp 80000000 fsl-ls1043a-uefi-rdb.dtb; erase 0x65B00000 0x65BFFFFF; cp.b 80000000 65B00000 $filesize' run uefi run ppa run rcw run dtb Note: The host machine is assumed to be having tftp server running, with the relevant files in place. The rcw, uefi, dtb and ppa images can also be found at compass link shared above. Note: Make sure SD card is inserted into the SD card slot on the board. Reset RDB to boot from NOR flash bank 4 => cpld reset altbank You should get UEFI boot prompt, as shown in the image below. Enter 2 to load Shell. On the Shell prompt run the following commands Shell> FS0:   Shell> ls You should see a list of the grub executable and configurations files present on SD card. Booting Linux via PXE on LS1043a RDB: Note: atftpd or tftpd-hpa, is required as tftp server for PXE boot to work. tftpd is not supported.  Load grub by entering the name of the grub executable. Shell> grubaa64.efi On the grub prompt, setup the server and client IPs for TFTP transfer. grub> set net_default_server=<server_ip> grub> net_add_addr eno0 efinet0 <client_ip> Load the grub configuration. grub> configfile (hd3,msdos1)/ls1043a-grub.cfg Grub menu is listed. Choose the entry for liinux boot. See the snapshot below for reference. Linux boot should start in around 7-8 minutes. Data transfer speed is around 100 KB/s.
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This topic explains steps to configure the “MT25QU02GCBB8E12” flash device for LX2160ARDB. The steps are common for most of the flash devices. If the procedure does not work for a particular flash device, please contact NXP Support.   Prerequisite: CW version 2019.01   In a custom design with LX2160, if you want to use the MT25QU02GCBB8E12 flash device which is not supported by the flash programmer,  you can add support for the new flash device by following these steps: Browse to the directory <CW4NET-Installation-Directory>/CW4NET_v2019.01/CW_ARMv8/Config/flash/ Duplicate file devices/MT25QU01GBBB.xml and rename the duplicated file as devices/MT25QU02GBBB.xml Update devices/MT25QU02GBBB.xml as follows: <device-file>       <device>             <content>                   <device_parameters>                         <device_type>spi</device_type>                         <manufacturerid>0x20</manufacturerid>                   </device_parameters>                  <name>MT25QU02GBBB</name>                   <sectors>                        <sector count="4096" size="0x10000"/>                   </sectors>                   <organizations>                         <organization depth="128M" width="8">                              <id>0xBB22</id>                               <algorithm>                                    <fpinclude href="algorithms/MT25QU02GBBB.xml"/>                               </algorithm>                         </organization>                   </organizations>             </content>       </device> </device-file> Duplicate file algorithms/MT25QU01GBBB.xml and rename the duplicated files as algorithms/MT25QU02GBBB.xml Update algorithms/MT25QU02GBBB.xml as follows : <algorithm-file>       <architectures>             <architecture type="arm" address_size="64">                   <controller type="QSPI">                         <format>bin</format>                         <entry_point>0x100</entry_point>                         <file>QSPI_64b</file>                        <fpinclude href="algorithms/params/MT25QU02GBBB_QSPI_64.xml"/>                         <supported_operations>                               <operation>id</operation>                               <operation>erase_sectors</operation>                               <operation>program</operation>                               <operation>dump</operation>                               <operation>protect_sectors</operation>                               <operation>unprotect_sectors</operation>                         </supported_operations>                   </controller>                  <controller type="FSPI">                        <format>bin</format>                        <entry_point>0x100</entry_point>                        <file>FSPI_64b</file>                        <fpinclude href="algorithms/params/MT25QU02GBBB_QSPI_64.xml"/>                        <supported_operations>                              <operation>id</operation>                              <operation>erase_sectors</operation>                              <operation>program</operation>                             <operation>dump</operation>                              <operation>protect_sectors</operation>                              <operation>unprotect_sectors</operation>                        </supported_operations>                  </controller>               </architecture>       </architectures> </algorithm-file> Duplicate algorithms/params/MT25QU01GBBB_QSPI_64.xml and rename the duplicated file as algorithms/params/MT25QU02GBBB_QSPI_64.xml Update algorithms/params/MT25QU02GBBB_QSPI_64.xml as follows: <params_file>     <parameters_block>         <param name="function" size="0x4"/>         <param name="padding1" size="0x4"/>         <param name="base_addr" size="0x8"/>         <param name="num_items" size="0x4" type="data_size"/>         <param name="result_status" size="0x4" type="result"/>         <param name="items" size="0x8" type="data_inout"/>         <param name="qspi_base_addr" size="0x8"/>         <param name="qspi_controller_offset" size="0x4"/>         <param name="bytes_per_sector" size="0x4" value="0x10000"/>         <param name="bytes_per_page" size="0x4" value="0x100"/>          <param name="number_of_sectors" size="0x4" value="0x1000"/>         <param name="swap_enable" size="0x1"/>         <param name="workaround" size="0x1" value="0"/>         <param name="is_nand" size="0x1" value ="0"/>         <param name="block_protect_mask" size="0x1" value="0x5C"/>         <param name="top_bottom_reg_address" size="0x4" value="0"/>         <param name="top_bottom_mask" size="0x1" value="0x20"/> Update the target initialization file as follows: def Config_Flash_Devices():     fl = flash.create(TA)       # Add FlexSPI device     #fl.add_device({"alias": "xspi", "name": "MT35XU512ABA", "address": 0x0, "ws_address": 0x18000000, "ws_size": 0x1FFFF, "geometry": "8x1", "controller": "FSPI"})     # Add MT25QU02GCBB8E12 flash device       fl.add_device({ "alias" : "xspi" , "name" : "MT25QU02GBBB" , "address" : 0x0, "ws_address" : 0x18000000, "ws_size" : 0x1FFFF, "geometry" : "4x1" , "controller" : "FSPI" }) Restart CodeWarrior for ARMv8 and start the Flash programmer. Select   MT25QU02GBBB device from flash device list and configure the desired operations.
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Please note that the LSDK memory layout for PPA boot flow explained in this topic is only applicable for  LSDK 18.09 and older releases. For  LSDK 18.12 and newer releases, refer Flash layout for new boot flow with TF-A. The following table shows the memory layout of various firmware stored in NOR/NAND/QSPI flash device or SD card on all QorIQ Reference Design Boards. Firmware Definition MaxSize NOR/NAND/QSPI Flash Offset SD Start Block No. RCW + PBI 1 MB 0x00000000 0x00008 Boot firmware (U-Boot or UEFI) 2 MB 0x00100000 0x00800 Boot firmware environment 1 MB 0x00300000 0x01800 PPA firmware 2 MB 0x00400000 0x02000 Secure boot headers 3 MB 0x00600000 0x03000 DPAA1 FMAN ucode 256 KB 0x00900000 0x04800 QE/uQE firmware 256 KB 0x00940000 0x04A00 Ethernet PHY firmware 256 KB 0x00980000 0x04C00 DPAA2-MC or PFE firmware 3 MB 0x00A00000 0x05000 DPAA2 DPL 1 MB 0x00D00000 0x06800 DPAA2 DPC 1 MB 0x00E00000 0x07000 Device tree(needed by uefi) 1 MB 0x00F00000 0x07800 Kernel lsdk_linux_<arch>.itb 16 MB 0x01000000 0x08000 Ramdisk rfs 32 MB 0x02000000 0x10000 The following figures highlight the changes in the flash layout for boot flow with PPA and flash layout for new TF-A boot flow. Flash layout for boot flow with PPA   Changed flash layout for TF-A boot flow
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Follow these steps to update the Linux kernel image and device tree on the SD card.  Compiling Linux kernel images and device tree On Linux host, clone the repository with Linux kernel image and device tree: $  git clone  https://source.codeaurora.org/external/qoriq/qoriq-components/linux $ cd linux $ git checkout -b <new branch> <start point> For example, $  git checkout -b LSDK-19.06-V4.14 LSDK-19.06-V4.14 where LSDK-19.06-V4.14 refers to a tag in the format  LSDK-<LSDK version>-V<kernel version> $   make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- defconfig lsdk.config If you want to make changes to the device tree, open and edit arch/arm64/boot/dts/freescale/fsl-ls1043a-rdb.dts $   make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- The binary kernel image Image  and compressed kernel image Image.gz  are in arch/arm64/boot/ . The device tree blob fsl-ls1043a-rdb.dtb  is in arch/arm64/boot/dts/freescale/ . Copying the compiled kernel images and device tree to the SD card Plug the SD card into the Linux host machine. Mount the SD card partition that contains Linux kernel images and device tree. sudo mkdir <mount_location> sudo mount /dev/sdX <mount_location> Use the command cat /proc/partitions to see a list of devices and their sizes to make sure that the correct device names have been chosen. The SDHC storage drive in the Linux PC is detected as /dev/ sdX, where X is a letter such as a, b, c. Make sure to choose the correct device name, because data on this device will be replaced. If your Linux host machine supports read/write SDHC card directly without an extra SDHC card reader device, the device name of SDHC card is typically mmcblk0. Replace Image , Image.gz , and  fsl-ls1043a-rdb.dtb  on the SD card with the new files compiled in the steps above. sudo cp /linux/arch/arm64/boot/Image /linux/arch/arm64/boot/Image.gz /linux/arch/arm64/boot/dts/freescale/fsl-ls1043a-rdb.dtb <mount_location> sudo umount /dev/sdX Plug the SD card into LS1043ARDB  and boot the board to Ubuntu using the SD card.  If U-Boot does not find LSDK on the SD card, it will boot   TinyDistro from  lsdk_linux_arm64_tiny.itb   stored on the SD card. You can confirm that Linux kernel and device tree is updated on the SD card by running this command and checking the timestamp. root@localhost:~# uname -a Linux localhost 4.14.104 #2 SMP PREEMPT Wed Aug 21 17:14:01 IST 2019 aarch64 aarch64 aarch64 GNU/Linux
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