Kinetis Microcontrollers Knowledge Base

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Kinetis Microcontrollers Knowledge Base

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  This document describes the different source clocks and the main modules that manage which clock source is used to derive the system clocks that exists on the Kinetis devices. It’s important to know the different clock sources available on our devices, modifying the default clock configuration may have different purposes since increasing the processor performance, achieving specific baud rates for serial communications, power saving, or simply getting a known base reference for a clock timer. The hardware used for this document is the following: Kinetis:    FRDM-K64F Keep in mind that the described hardware and management clock modules in this document are a general overview of the different platforms and the devices listed above are used as a reference example, some terms and hardware modules functionality may vary between devices of the same platform. For more detailed information about the device hardware modules, please refer to your specific device Reference Manual. Kinetis platforms The Kinetis devices have a main module called Multipurpose Clock Generator (MCG) this module controls which clock source is used to derive the system clocks. A high-level description diagram is shown below: Figure   1 . Multipurpose Clock Generator External clock sources can provide a frequency signal as the System oscillator module or the RTC oscillator module, also the MCG module has internal clock generators that the System integration module (SIM) manages, the SIM module provides module-specific clock gating to allow granular shutoff of modules. For more detailed information about the SIM module, refer to “Chapter 12. System Integration Module(SIM)” from the   K64 Sub-Family Reference Manual.  The following clock diagram shows all the multiplexers, dividers, and clock gates that can be controlled by the MCG, however, we will focus on the external and internal clock sources and the MCG outputs. Figure 2. Oscillators,  MCG and SIM modules At ‘MCGOUTCLK’ line, the primary clocks for the system are generated, the circuitry provides fixed clock dividers for the Core clock, Bus clock,   FlexBus   clock, and the Flash Clock. This allows for trade-offs between performance and power dissipation. It’s important to know that the MCG has 9 states of operation shown in the following figure.    Figure   3 . MCG operation states In the previous image, the arrows indicate the permitted MCG state transitions, for example, if the current MCG state is BLPI(Bypassed Low Power Internal) and the desired state is BLPE(Bypassed Low Power External) the shortest and allowed path to follow is first switch to FBI(FLL Bypassed Internal) then to FBE(FLL Bypassed External), and finally to the BLPE MCG state. These switching mode restrictions exist due to certain MCG configuration bits that must be changed to properly move from one mode to another. For example, in the K64 family, the MCG state after a power-on reset is FEI(FLL Engaged Internal) mode, the MCGOUTCLK is derived from the FLL clock that is controlled by the 32kHz Internal Reference Clock (IRC), the following table shows the output frequency values for this specific MCG state. Source Frequency MCGOUTCLK 20.97MHZ Core/System clocks 20.97MHz Bus clock 10.48MHz FlexBus   clock 6.99MHz Flash clock 4.19MHz Table   1 . K64 default MCG configuration after reset: FEI (FLL Engaged Internal) The following image shows the blocks used for the FEI state using Clocks Tool from MCUXpresso IDE. Figure   4 . View of FEI state from Clock Tools For more detailed information, refer to “Chapter 25. Multipurpose Clock Generator (MCG)” from the   K64 Sub-Family Reference Manual.  External Clock Sources      System oscillator The System Oscillator module is a crystal oscillator. The module, in conjunction with an external crystal or resonator, generates a reference clock for the MCU.     Supports 32 kHz crystals (Low Range mode) and supports 3–8 MHz, 8–32 MHz crystals and resonators (High Range mode) For more detailed information, refer to Chapter 26. Oscillator(OSC) at K64 Sub-Family Reference Manual.    RTC oscillator The RTC oscillator module, in conjunction with an external crystal, generates a reference clock source of 1Hz and 32.768KHz, supports 32 kHz crystals with very low power. For more detailed information, refer to Chapter 27. RTC Oscillator(OSC32K) at K64 Sub-Family Reference Manual.   Internal Clock Sources     IRC oscillators Internal clock driven by the Fast Internal Reference (FIR) @4MHz or the Slow Internal Reference (SIR) @32kHz.   IRC internal oscillator Internal 48 MHz oscillator that can be used as a reference to the MCG and also may clock some on-chip modules. PLL Phase-locked loop circuit that in conjunction with an external clock source can achieve higher and stable frequencies.    FLL Frequency-locked loop circuit that in conjunction with an internal/external clock source provides module-specific clock and achieves higher frequencies. Modifying MCG state from FEI to FBI state If the current system clock does not fit with our timing requirements we can modify it by changing the state of the MCG module, in this case, if the user requires a lower system clock frequency @32.7KHz(Slow IRC) or @4MHz(Fast IRC) instead @21MHz(FLL Engaged Internal ‘FEI’ default state) and a low power option of the MCG module, the FLL Bypass Internal (FBI) state is an option to reach these requirements. 1.1   Configure MCG mode The FBI state allows us to use the Fast IRC together with its frequency divider achieving frequencies between 31.25KHz to 4MHz, for this example the final core clock is @2MHz. Follow the next steps to change to the FBI state and select a 2MHz clock using the Clock-Tools tool from MCUXpresso IDE.         At the MCUXpresso QuickStart Panel select MCUXpresso Config Tools >> Open Clocks Figure   5 . Open  Config Tools         At the left top of the screen select the MCG mode to “FBI(FLL Bypassed Internal)” Figure   6 . Selection of MCG Mode         Select the frequency divider block(FCRDIV) right-click on it and select “Edit settings of: FCRDIV” Figure   7 . FCRDIV block         Modify the divider value from 1 to 2. Figure   8 . FCRDIV divider value         Finally, the next image shows how the MCG state and the new yellow paths get modified. The Core and system clocks are @2MHz. Figure   9 . FBI MCG state @2MHz 1.2   Export clock configuration to the project After you complete the clock configuration, the Clock Tool will update the source code in   clock_config.c   and   clock_config.h , including all the clock functional groups that we created with the tool. In the previous example, we configured the MCG state to FBI mode, this is translated to the following instructions in source code: “ CLOCK_SetInternalRefClkConfig ();” and “ CLOCK_SetFbiMode ();”   Figure   10 . Source code view of FBI MCG configuration Another way to change the MCG state is by directly modifying the internal MCG registers. The blocks shown in the following image need to be modified to switch from the default FEI state to the FBI state. Figure   11 . Blocks in FEI state to modify at MCG registers Note. MCG registers can only be written in supervisor mode. The ARM core runs in privileged(supervisor mode) out of reset, it is controlled by [ nPRIV ] bit in CONTROL core register. For more detailed information visit the Cortex-M4 ARM Documentation Reference Manual.         Internal Reference Source Multiplexor (IREFS), selects the reference source clock for the FLL.   1 is written to C1[IREFS]. The slow internal reference is selected.         PLL Select    Multiplexor(PLLS) Controls whether the PLL or FLL output is selected. 0 is written to C6[PLLS] The FLL output is selected as the MCG source, the PLL is disabled.         Clock Source Select Multiplexor(CLKS), selects the clock source for the MCGOUTCLK  line. 01 is written to C1[CLKS].   The internal reference clock is selected at the CLKS multiplexor.         Fast Clock Internal Reference Divider(FCRDIV), selects the Fast Internal Reference Clock divider, the resulting frequency can be in the range of 31.25KHz to 4MHz. 001 is written to SC[FCRDIV]. The dividing factor is 2 since the desired frequency is @2MHz and the source clock is @4MHz.         Internal Reference Clock Select (IRCS). Selects between the fast or slow internal reference clock source.   x is written to C2[IRCS]. Write 0 for Slow IRC or 1 for Fast IRC.         Finally, to enable the low power when neither the PLL nor FLL are used, a register in C2[LP] is modified. x is written to C2[LP]. Enable, or Disable the PLL & FLL in all the bypass modes.     This is translated to the following instructions in source code in “ CLOCK_SetInternalRefClkConfig ();” and “ CLOCK_SetFbiMode ();” functions:   Figure   12 . Source code view of Internal MCG Registers Note. C1, C2, C6, and SC registers are part of the internal MCG control registers.  References K64 Sub-Family Reference Manual Also visit LPC's System Clocks   
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As we know, uC/OS –II is a scalable, ROMable, preemptive real-time kernel that manages multiple tasks and it has been ported to more than 45 CPU architectures.  In this article, you can learn the steps of porting uC/OS –II to MAPS-22. Downloading uC/OS-II source code and application project To obtain the μC/OS-II source code and projects, simply point your favorite browser to: www.Micrium.com/Books/Micrium-uCOS-II . You will be required to register. This means that you’ll have to provide information about yourself. Download and execute the following file: Micrium-Book-uCOS-II-TWR-K53N512.exe. Fig 1 shows the directory structure created by this executable. All files are placed under the \Micrium directory. There are two main sub-directories: \Examples and \Software and they are described below. Fig 1 Directories and Files μC/OS-II is fairly easy to use once it is understood exactly which source files are needed to make up a μC/OS-II-based application. Fig 2 shows the μC/OS-II architecture and its relationship with hardware. Of course, in addition to the timer and interrupt controller, hardware would most likely contain such other devices as Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters (UARTs), Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs), Ethernet controller(s) and more. Fig 2 F2-(1) The application code consists of project or product files. For convenience, these are simply called app.c and app.h, however an application can contain any number of files that do not have to be called app.*. The application code is typically where one would find the main(). F2-(2) The Board Support Package (BSP) code needed by μC/OS-II is typically quite simple and generally, μC/OS-II only requires that you initialize a periodic interrupt source which is used for time delays and timeouts. This functionality can be placed in a file called bsp.c along with its corresponding header file, bsp.h. Semiconductor manufacturers often provide library functions in source form for accessing the peripherals on their CPU or MCU. These libraries are also part of the BSP. F2-(3) This is the μC/OS-II processor-independent code. This code is written in highly portable ANSI C. F2-(4) This is the μC/OS-II code that is adapted to a specific CPU architecture and is called a port. F2-(5) Configuration files are used to define μC/OS-II features (os_cfg.h) to include in the application, specify the size of certain variables and data structures expected by μC/OS-II, such as idle task stack size and tick rate among others. Below is a summary of all directories and files involved in a μC/OS-II-based project (Fig 3). The“<-Cfg” on the far right indicates that these files are typically copied into the application directory and edited based on the project requirements. Fig 3 Porting Steps 1. Copy uC/OS-II source code to ~\MAPSK22_SC\Libraries which includes peripheral driver files, startup code and devices header 2. Copy os_cfg.h, app_cfg.h which reside in ~\Micrium-Book-uCOS-II-TWR-K53N512\Micrium\Examples\Freescale\TWR-K53N512\(project name) to ~\MAPSK22_SC\Project\MAPSK22\1-Template\src Summary: configuration files os_cfg.h, app_cfg.h should be adapt to the specific requirements of the application code 3. Copy lib_def.h which resides in ~\Micrium\Software\uC-LIB to ~\MAPSK22_SC\Libraries\drivers\K\inc 4. Adds systick timer initialization function in system_MK22F51212.c void SystemTickInit (void) {   uint32_t cpu_clk_freq;   uint32_t cnts;   cpu_clk_freq = SystemCoreClock;    cnts  = cpu_clk_freq / (uint32_t)OS_TICKS_PER_SEC;            OS_CPU_SysTickInit(cnts);     5. Modify the interrupt vector 6. Create uC/OS-II group in the workspace, then add the uC/OS-II source code and os_cfg.h, app_cfg.h 7. Add application code in the main.c and please check the attachment. 8. Modify the Include Directories    Run the uC/OS-II application After build the modified application code, then run it on MAPS-K22 board(Fig 4). Fig 4 You can find the LED3 and LED4 flash every 2s, however for the LED1 and LED2, it’s 1s. And some informations’re illustrated in the Hyper Terminal (Fig 5)
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Introduction With the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT), more and more applications are incorporating the use of sensors while also requiring power efficiency and increased performance.  A popular interface for these sensors is the I2C protocol. The I2C bus is a great protocol that is a true multi-master protocol and allows for each bus to contain many devices.  As the performance demand of the application grows, so will the speed of the I2C bus as it will be necessary to get more data from the sensors and/or at a faster rate.  Many applications may already have a need to operate an I2C bus at 400 kHz or more.  Higher data rates means the MCU core will need to spend more time servicing the I2C transactions.  The DMA module is one good way to free up the core in order to let it tend to other aspects of the application.  This can add much needed or much desired performance to applications.  Especially applications that may be using small, power efficient, single core MCUs. It may seem like an easy, straight-forward task to add I2C reads from a sensor to an application.  However I2C is a time sensitive protocol and consequently, so is the I2C peripherals on MCUs.  It is important to understand the time requirements and how to overcome them. The recommended approach is to use DMA to transfer the received I2C data to the desired buffer in your application software.  This document is going to outline how to setup your DMA and provide an example of how to do this for a KW40 device using the Kinetis SDK version 1.3.  The KW40 is being targeted because this is a small, power efficient MCU that incorporates a radio for your wireless applications and as such, it is likely that your application could need this DMA approach.  The KSDK version 1.3 is being targeted because this version of the SDK does not currently support DMA transactions for the I2C peripheral. Understanding the Kinetis I2C peripheral module Before getting into the specifics of creating a DMA enabled I2C driver, it is important to understand some basics of the Kinetis I2C peripheral module.  This module handles a lot of the low-level timing.  However the I2C registers must be serviced in a timely manner to operate correctly.  Take the case of a master reading data from a typical I2C sensor as shown in the diagram below. In the diagram above, the red lines indicate points in the transaction where software or DMA needs to interact with the I2C peripheral to ensure the transaction happens correctly.  To begin a transaction the core must change the MST bit which puts a start bit on the bus (marked by symbol ST).  Immediately following this, the core should then also write the target slave's address (Device Address) including the read/write bit (R/W).  Once this transaction is complete, the I2C will issue an interrupt and then the core should write the register address to be read from. Upon completion of that being put on the bus, the I2C will issue another interrupt and the master should then put a repeated start (SR) on the bus as well as the slave's address again.  Now the slave will send data to the master (once the master begins the transaction by issuing a dummy read of the I2C data register).  In the standard configuration, the I2C peripheral will automatically send the NAK or AK depending on the configuration of the TXAK bit in the I2C peripheral.  Because of this automation, it is important that this bit be handled properly and is configured one frame in advance. Furthermore, to ensure that the NAK bit is sent at the appropriate time, the TXAK bit must be set when the second to last byte is received.  The timing of this configuration change is very important to ensuring that the transaction happens properly. This document will describe how to use DMA to receive the data.  The DMA will be configured before the transaction begins and will be used to receive the data from the slave.  The document will also discuss options to handle proper NAK'ing of the data to end the transaction. Writing a DMA I2C master receive function The first step in adding DMA capability to your SDK driver is to create a new receive function with an appropriate name.  For this example, the newly created receive function is named I2C_DRV_MasterReceiveDataDMA.  To create this function, the I2C_DRV_MasterReceive function (which is called for both blocking and non-blocking) was copied and then modified by removing the blocking capability of the function. Then in this function, after the dummy read of the IIC data register that triggers the reception of data, the DMA enable bit of the I2C control register is written. /*FUNCTION********************************************************************** * * Function Name : I2C_DRV_MasterReceiveDataDMA * Description   : Performs a non-blocking receive transaction on the I2C bus *                 utilizing DMA to receive the data. * *END**************************************************************************/ i2c_status_t I2C_DRV_MasterReceiveDataDMA(uint32_t instance,                                                const i2c_device_t * device,                                                const uint8_t * cmdBuff,                                                uint32_t cmdSize,                                                uint8_t * rxBuff,                                                uint32_t rxSize,                                                uint32_t timeout_ms) {     assert(instance < I2C_INSTANCE_COUNT);     assert(rxBuff);       I2C_Type * base = g_i2cBase[instance];     i2c_master_state_t * master = (i2c_master_state_t *)g_i2cStatePtr[instance];             /* Return if current instance is used */     OSA_EnterCritical(kCriticalDisableInt);         if (!master->i2cIdle)     {         OSA_ExitCritical(kCriticalDisableInt);         return kStatus_I2C_Busy;     }         master->rxBuff = rxBuff;     master->rxSize = rxSize;     master->txBuff = NULL;     master->txSize = 0;     master->status = kStatus_I2C_Success;     master->i2cIdle = false;     master->isBlocking = true;     OSA_ExitCritical(kCriticalDisableInt);             while(I2C_HAL_GetStatusFlag(base, kI2CBusBusy));     I2C_DRV_MasterSetBaudRate(instance, device);         /* Set direction to send for sending of address. */     I2C_HAL_SetDirMode(base, kI2CSend);       /* Enable i2c interrupt.*/     I2C_HAL_ClearInt(base);     I2C_HAL_SetIntCmd(base, true);       /* Generate start signal. */     I2C_HAL_SendStart(base);       /* Send out slave address. */     I2C_DRV_SendAddress(instance, device, cmdBuff, cmdSize, kI2CReceive, timeout_ms);       /* Start to receive data. */     if (master->status == kStatus_I2C_Success)     {         /* Change direction to receive. */         I2C_HAL_SetDirMode(base, kI2CReceive);                 /* Send NAK if only one byte to read. */         if (rxSize == 0x1U)         {         I2C_HAL_SendNak(base);         }         else         {         I2C_HAL_SendAck(base);         }                 /* Dummy read to trigger receive of next byte in interrupt. */         I2C_HAL_ReadByte(base);                 /* Now set the DMA bit to let the DMA take over the reception. */         I2C_C1_REG(I2C1) |= I2C_C1_DMAEN_MASK;                 /* Don't wait for the transfer to finish. Exit immediately*/     }     else if (master->status == kStatus_I2C_Timeout)     {         /* Disable interrupt. */         I2C_HAL_SetIntCmd(base, false);                 if (I2C_HAL_GetStatusFlag(base, kI2CBusBusy))         {         /* Generate stop signal. */         I2C_HAL_SendStop(base);         }                 /* Indicate I2C bus is idle. */         master->i2cIdle = true;     }         return master->status; } After writing the DMA driver, a DMA specific transfer complete function must be implemented. This is needed in order for the application software to signal to the driver structures that the transfer has been completed and the bus is now idle. In addition, the DMA enable bit needs to be cleared in order for other driver functions to be able to properly use the IIC peripheral. void I2C_DRV_CompleteTransferDMA(uint32_t instance) {     assert(instance < I2C_INSTANCE_COUNT);     I2C_Type * base = g_i2cBase[instance];     i2c_master_state_t * master = (i2c_master_state_t *)g_i2cStatePtr[instance];         I2C_C1_REG(base) &= ~(I2C_C1_DMAEN_MASK | I2C_C1_TX_MASK);     I2C_C1_REG(base) &= ~I2C_C1_MST_MASK;;        /* Indicate I2C bus is idle. */     master->i2cIdle = true; } DMA Configuration Next, the application layer needs a function to configure the DMA properly, and a DMA callback is needed to properly service the DMA interrupt that will be used as well as post a semaphore. But before diving into the specifics of that, it is important to discuss the overall strategy of using the DMA in this particular application. After every transaction, the data register must be serviced to ensure that all of the necessary data is received.  One DMA channel can easily be assigned to service this activity.  After the reception of the second to last data byte, the TXAK bit must be written with a '1' to ensure that the NAK is put on the bus at the appropriate time. This is a little trickier to do.  There are three options: A second dedicated DMA channel can be linked to write the I2C_C1 register every time the I2C_D register is serviced.  This option will require a second array to hold the appropriate values to be written to the I2C_C1 register.  The following figure illustrates this process. The second DMA channel can be linked to write the I2C_C1 register after the second to last data byte has been received.  This option would require that the primary DMA channel be set to receive two data bytes less than the total number of desired data bytes.  The primary DMA channel would also need to be re-configured to receive the last two bytes (or the application software would need to handle this).  However this could be a desirable programming path for applications that are memory constrained as it reduces the amount of memory necessary for your application. The primary DMA channel can be set to receive two data bytes less than the total number of desired data bytes and the core (application software) can handle the reception of the last two bytes.  This would be a desirable option for those looking for a simpler solution but has the drawback that in a system where the core is already handling many other tasks, there may still be issues with writing the TXAK bit on time. This example will focus on option number 1, as this is the simplest, fully automatic solution.  It could also easily be modified to fit the second option as the programmer would simply need to change the number of bytes to receive by the primary DMA and add some reconfiguration information in the interrupt to service the primary DMA channel. DMA Channel #1 The first DMA channel is configured to perform 8-bit  transfers from the I2C data register (I2C_D) to the buffer to hold the desired data.  This channel should transfer the number of desired bytes minus one.  The final byte will be received by the core.  Other DMA configuration bits that are important to set are the cycle steal bit, disable request bit, peripheral request bit (ERQ), interrupt on completion of transfer (EINT), and destination increment (DINC).  It also important to configure the link channel control to perform a link to channel LCH1 after each cycle-steal transfer and LCH1 should be configured for the channel that will transfer from memory to the I2C control register (I2C_C1).  The first DMA channel is configured as shown below. // Set Source Address (this is the UART0_D register       DMA_SAR0 = (uint32_t)&I2C_D_REG(base);             // Set BCR to know how many bytes to transfer       // Need to set to desired size minus 1 because the last will be manually       // read.        DMA_DSR_BCR0 = DMA_DSR_BCR_BCR(destArraySize - 1);             // Clear Source size and Destination size fields.        DMA_DCR0 &= ~(DMA_DCR_SSIZE_MASK                     | DMA_DCR_DSIZE_MASK                     );       // Set DMA as follows:       //     Source size is byte size       //     Destination size is byte size       //     D_REQ cleared automatically by hardware       //     Destination address will be incremented after each transfer       //     Cycle Steal mode       //     External Requests are enabled       //     Interrupts are enabled       //     Asynchronous DMA requests are enabled.       //     Linking to channel LCH1 after each cycle steal transfer       //     Set LCH1 to DMA CH 1.        DMA_DCR0 |= (DMA_DCR_SSIZE(1)             // 1 = 8-bit transfers                    | DMA_DCR_DSIZE(1)           // 1 = 8-bit transfers                    | DMA_DCR_D_REQ_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_DINC_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_CS_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_ERQ_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_EINT_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_EADREQ_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_LINKCC(2)          // Link to LCH1 after each cycle-steal transfer                    | DMA_DCR_LCH1(1)            // Link to DMA CH1                    );       // Set destination address       DMA_DAR0 = (uint32_t)destArray; DMA Channel #2 The second DMA channel, which is the linked channel, should be configured to perform 8-bit transfers that transfer data from an array in memory (titled ack_nak_array in this example) to the I2C control register (I2C_C1).  This channel should also disables requests upon completion of the entire transfer, and enable the cycle-steal mode.  In this channel, the source should be incremented (as opposed to the destination as in the first channel). This channel is configured as shown below: // Set Source Address (this is the UART0_D register       DMA_SAR1 = (uint32_t)ack_nak_array;             // Set BCR to know how many bytes to transfer       // Need to set to desired size minus 1 because the last will be manually       // read.       DMA_DSR_BCR1 = DMA_DSR_BCR_BCR(destArraySize - 1);             // Clear Source size and Destination size fields.        DMA_DCR1 &= ~(DMA_DCR_SSIZE_MASK                     | DMA_DCR_DSIZE_MASK                     );             // Set DMA as follows:       //     Source size is byte size       //     Destination size is byte size       //     D_REQ cleared automatically by hardware       //     Destination address will be incremented after each transfer       //     Cycle Steal mode       //     External Requests are disabled       //     Asynchronous DMA requests are enabled.       DMA_DCR1 |= (DMA_DCR_SSIZE(1)             // 1 = 8-bit transfers                    | DMA_DCR_DSIZE(1)           // 1 = 8-bit transfers                    | DMA_DCR_D_REQ_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_SINC_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_CS_MASK                    | DMA_DCR_EADREQ_MASK                    );             // Set destination address       DMA_DAR1 = (uint32_t)&I2C_C1_REG(base); Once the DMA channels are initialized, the only action left is to configure the interrupts, enable the channel in the DMA MUX, and create the semaphore if it has not already been created.  This is done as shown below. //Need to enable the DMA IRQ       NVIC_EnableIRQ(DMA0_IRQn);       //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////       // MUX configuration       // Enables the DMA channel and select the DMA Channel Source        DMAMUX0_CHCFG0 = DMAMUX_CHCFG_SOURCE(BOARD_I2C_DMAMUX_CHN); //DMAMUX_CHCFG_ENBL_MASK|DMAMUX_CHCFG_SOURCE(0x31); //0xb1;       DMAMUX0_CHCFG0 |= DMAMUX_CHCFG_ENBL_MASK;             /* Create semaphore */       if(semDmaReady == NULL){         semDmaReady = OSA_EXT_SemaphoreCreate(0);       } Finally, the DMA initialization function also initializes the ack_nak_array.  This is only necessary when implementing the first DMA strategy.  The second DMA strategy would only need to write a single value at the correct time.  The array initialization for strategy #1 is shown below.  Note that the values written to the array are 0xA1 plus the appropriate value of the TXAK bit.  By writing 0xA1, it is ensured that the I2C module will be enabled in master mode with the DMA enable bit set. // Initialize Ack/Nak array       // Need to initialize the Ack/Nak buffer first       for( j=0; j < destArraySize; j++)       {           if(j >= (destArraySize - 2))           {               ack_nak_array[j] = 0xA1 | I2C_C1_TXAK_MASK;           }           else           {               ack_nak_array[j] = 0xA1 & (~I2C_C1_TXAK_MASK);           }       } DMA Interrupt Handler Now a DMA interrupt handler is required.  A minimum of overhead will be required for this example as the interrupt handler simply needs to service the DONE bit and post the semaphore created in the initialization.  The DMA interrupt handler is as follows: void DMA0_IRQHandler(void) {     // Clear pending errors or the done bit     if (((DMA_DSR_BCR0 & DMA_DSR_BCR_DONE_MASK) == DMA_DSR_BCR_DONE_MASK)         | ((DMA_DSR_BCR0 & DMA_DSR_BCR_BES_MASK) == DMA_DSR_BCR_BES_MASK)         | ((DMA_DSR_BCR0 & DMA_DSR_BCR_BED_MASK) == DMA_DSR_BCR_BED_MASK)         | ((DMA_DSR_BCR0 & DMA_DSR_BCR_CE_MASK) == DMA_DSR_BCR_CE_MASK))     {         // Clear the Done MASK and set semaphore, dmaDone         DMA_DSR_BCR0 |= DMA_DSR_BCR_DONE_MASK;         //dmaDone = 1;         OSA_SemaphorePost(semDmaReady);     } } Using your newly written driver function Once all of these items have been taken care of, it is now time for the application to use the functions. It is expected that the DMA will be initialized before calling the DMA receive function.  After the first call, the DMA can be re-initialized every time or could simply be reset with the start address of the arrays and byte counter (this is the minimum of actions that must be performed).  Then the application should ensure that the transaction happened successfully.   Upon a successful call to the I2C_DRV_MasterReceiveDataDMA function, the application should wait for the semaphore to be posted.  Once the semaphore posts, the application software should wait for the Transfer Complete flag to become set.  This ensures that the application does not try to put a STOP signal on the bus before the NAK has been physically put on the bus.  If the STOP signal is attempted out of sequence, the I2C module could be put in an erroneous state and the STOP signal may not be sent.  Next, the I2C_DRV_CompleteTransferDMA function should be called to send the STOP signal and to signal to the driver structures that the bus is idle.  At this point, the I2C transaction is now fully complete and there is still one data byte that hasn't been transferred to the receive buffer.  It is the application's responsibility to perform one last read of the Data register to receive the last data byte of the transaction. /* Now initialize the DMA */    dma_init(BOARD_I2C_INSTANCE, Buffer, ack_nak_buffer, FXOS8700CQ_READ_LEN); //Init DMAMUX       returnValue = I2C_DRV_MasterReceiveDataDMA(BOARD_I2C_INSTANCE, &slave,                                                   cmdBuff, 1, Buffer, FXOS8700CQ_READ_LEN, 1000); if (returnValue != kStatus_I2C_Success)    {        return (kStatus_I2C_Fail);    } /* Wait for the DMA transaction to complete */    OSA_SemaphoreWait(semDmaReady, OSA_WAIT_FOREVER);       /* Need to wait for the transfer to complete */ for(temp=0; temp<250; temp++)     {         if(I2C_HAL_GetStatusFlag(base, kI2CTransferComplete))         {             break;         }     }       /* Now complete the transfer; this includes sending the I2C STOP signal and       clearing the DMA enable bit */    I2C_DRV_CompleteTransferDMA(BOARD_I2C_INSTANCE);       // Once the Transfer is complete, there is still one byte sitting in the Data    // register.      Buffer[11] = I2C_D_REG(g_i2cBase[BOARD_I2C_INSTANCE]); Conclusion To summarize, as consumers demand more and more power efficient technology with more and more functionality, MCU product developers need to cram more functionality in small power efficient MCUs.  Relying on DMA for basic data transfers is one good way to improve performance of smaller power efficient MCUs with a single core. This can be particularly useful in applications where an MCU needs to pull information from and I2C sensor.  To do this, there are three methods of implementing an I2C master receive function in your SDK 1.3 based application. Use two DMA channels.  The first to transfer from the I2C Data register to the destination array.  A second dedicated DMA channel can be linked to write the I2C_C1 register every time the I2C_D register is serviced. Use two DMA channels.  The first to transfer from the I2C Data register to the destination array. The second DMA channel can be linked to write the I2C_C1 register only after the second to last data byte has been received. Use a single DMA channel can be set to receive two data bytes less than the total number of desired data bytes and the core (application software) can handle the reception of the last two bytes. The recommendation of this document is to implement the first or second option as these are fully automatic options requiring the least intervention by the core.
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    Curve22519 is a Montgomery elliptic-curve. Such as Apple HomeKit, most of network and IoT software use it in Diffie-Hellman algorithm for key exchanging.     On the Security Kinets MCU chip,if we use just the software algorithm (base on mbedTLS), Curve25519 will spend 180ms for calculation of the shared security.     It is faster than other 256bit elliptic-curve with software algorithm, Because of the shared security calculation will take more than 1200ms with a Weierstrass’s BP256R1curve when use software algorithm.     With LTC ECC HW acceleration, it take only 16ms to calculate the shared security on 256bit elliptic-curve. Whatever you do, the speed of hardware acceleration always faster than the software algorithm.     Now that we should also want to use the LTC to accelerate the Curve22519. The LTC, however, only supported Weierstrass form curve, but Curve22519 is a Montgomery curve…     Although, we can't use LTC in Curve22519 directly, we can use it by mapping it to a Weierstrass form to use it.  As below, we gave parameters of these curves, transform formulas, example code and test result to show how and why to do it. 1. Curve parameter:    Cuvre22519 in Montgomery form:    Y^2 = X^3 + A*X^2 + X    Fp = 0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffed    A= 486662    Gx = 9    Gy = 0x20ae19a1b8a086b4e01edd2c7748d14c923d4d7e6d7c61b229e9c5a27eced3d9    Order of G point  =  0x1000000000000000000000000000000014def9dea2f79cd65812631a5cf5d3ed      Cuvre22519 in Weierstrass form :    Y^2 = X^3 + a*X + b    Fp = 0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffed    a  =  0x2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa984914a144L    b  =  0x7b425ed097b425ed097b425ed097b425ed097b425ed097b4260b5e9c7710c864L    Gx = 0x2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaad245a    Gy = 0x20ae19a1b8a086b4e01edd2c7748d14c923d4d7e6d7c61b229e9c5a27eced3d9    Order of G point  =  0x1000000000000000000000000000000014def9dea2f79cd65812631a5cf5d3ed    2. Calculation formula:   x_w –  x-coordinate value in  Weierstrass form   y_w –  y-coordinate value in  Weierstrass form   x_m - x-coordinate value in  Montgomory form   y_m -  we don’t care y-coordinate value in  Weierstrass mode   a_m – a coefficient of Montgomery equation (   Y^2 = X^3 + a_m * X^2 + X)   a_w – a coefficient of Weierstrass equation (   Y^2 = X^3 + a*X + b )   b_w – a coefficient of Weierstrass equation (   Y^2 = X^3 + a*X + b )     a)  x_w = (x_m + a_m/3)  %  p     b)  y_w ^2 = x_w ^ 3 + a_w*x_w + b_w c)   x_m = (x_w - a_m/3) % p You could reference these document as below: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curve25519 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_curve 3. example code: // public and private at Montgomery end #define M255_d      "0x7178DAC11D42AA5F39B10A62A8584DB0C8864564ADC9DF84EC0B13D9AEC220F8" #define M255_Qx     "0x3BA5048381744348D84E754B9944ABE080B37F7D4158DCE60CD79F66B98AB89E" // public and private at Weierstrass end #define WTS255_d    "0x09CC5CCF43C656C1309EE5A3491D5A8361607CEEB0C9B2B31A575E0FEF2B8835" #define WTS255_Qx   "0x3F4BDE110EE7AF71EF428D1018D188E35BAFB019F34F84E6465C5194B363DC2D" #define WTS255_Qy   "0x7540577CE6F920354E2A9D38CE88847D7447E66FA4D188AC75CB63C17210B718" #define WTS255_Qx_TO_M255_Qx     "0x14A13366643D04C74497E2656E26DE38B105056F48A4DA3B9BB1A6EA08B6B7DC" #define AM_INV3                  "0x2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaad2451" int ecdh_wts_curve_end ( ) {     unsigned int ticks ;     int ret = 0 ;     size_t blen = 0 , blen_peer = 0 ;     ecdh_context ecdh ;     ecdh_context ecdh_peer ;    // to_wts255     ecdh_context ecdh_peer_m255 ;     mpi R ;     mpi_init ( & R ) ;     ecdh_init ( & ecdh ) ;     ecdh_init ( & ecdh_peer ) ;     ecdh_init ( & ecdh_peer_m255 ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecp_use_known_dp ( & ecdh . grp , ECP_DP_WTS25519 ) ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecp_use_known_dp ( & ecdh_peer . grp , ECP_DP_WTS25519 ) ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecp_use_known_dp ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . grp , ECP_DP_M255 ) ) ;     blen = set_hash_buff ( /*TEST_ECP_GRP_ID*/ ECP_DP_WTS25519 , & secret_buf , ecp_name ) ;     if ( blen == 0 ) {         ret = - 1 ;         goto cleanup ;     }     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh . d , 16 ,   WTS255_d ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh . Q . X , 16 ,   WTS255_Qx ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh . Q . Y , 16 ,   WTS255_Qy ) ;     mpi_lset ( & ecdh . Q . Z , 1 ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . d , 16 , M255_d ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . X , 16 , M255_Qx ) ;     mpi_init ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y ) ;     mpi_lset ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Z , 1 ) ;     // map M255 point to WTS255 point     my_timer_start ( ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & R , 16 , AM_INV3 ) ;         mpi_add_mpi ( & ecdh_peer . Q . X , & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . X , & R ) ;     mpi_mod_mpi ( & ecdh_peer . Q . X , & ecdh_peer . Q . X , & ecdh_peer_m255 . grp . P ) ;        mpi_lset ( & R , 3 ) ;     mpi_exp_mod ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer . Q . X , & R , & ecdh_peer_m255 . grp . P , NULL ) ;     mpi_mul_mpi ( & R , & ecdh_peer . grp . A , & ecdh_peer . Q . X ) ;     mpi_mod_mpi ( & R , & R , & ecdh_peer . grp . P ) ;          mpi_add_mpi ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & R ) ;     mpi_add_mpi ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer . grp . B ) ;     mpi_mod_mpi ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer . grp . P ) ;     mpi_mod_sqrt ( & ecdh_peer . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . Y , & ecdh_peer_m255 . grp . P ) ;     // z = 1     mpi_lset ( & ecdh_peer . Q . Z , 1 ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecp_copy ( & ecdh . Qp ,   & ecdh_peer . Q ) ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecdh_calc_secret_wts2mont ( & ecdh , & blen , secret_buf , blen , myrand , NULL ) ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & R , 16 , AM_INV3 ) ;         mpi_sub_mpi ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . X , & ecdh . Q . X , & R ) ;     mpi_mod_mpi ( & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . X , & ecdh_peer_m255 . Q . X , & ecdh_peer_m255 . grp . P ) ;     ticks = my_timer_stop ( ) ;     // print out message     polarssl_printf ( "Weierstrass curve shared secutiy:\n" ) ;     mpi_printf_string ( & ecdh . z , 16 ) ;     polarssl_printf ( "%s ecdh peer to peer: %lu ticks, %d ms (%d) \n" , ecp_name , ticks , ticks / ( CLOCK_SYS_GetPitFreq ( 0 ) / 1000 ) , CLOCK_SYS_GetPitFreq ( 0 ) ) ;     cleanup :     if ( ret != 0 )         polarssl_printf ( "%s test Unexpected error, return code = %08X\n" , ecp_name , ret ) ;     mpi_free ( & R ) ;     ecdh_free ( & ecdh ) ;     ecdh_free ( & ecdh_peer ) ;     ecdh_free ( & ecdh_peer_m255 ) ;         return ( 0 ) ;    } int ecdh_mont_curve_end ( ) {     int verbose = 1 ;     unsigned int ticks ;     int ret = 0 ;     size_t blen = 0 , blen_peer = 0 ;     ecdh_context ecdh ;     ecp_point Q_peer ;           // peer public point     ecdh_init ( & ecdh ) ;     ecp_point_init ( & Q_peer ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecp_use_known_dp ( & ecdh . grp , ECP_DP_M255 ) ) ;     blen_peer = set_hash_buff ( ECP_DP_M255 , & secret_buf_peer , ecp_name ) ;     if ( blen_peer == 0 ) {         ret = - 1 ;         goto cleanup ;     }     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh . d , 16 ,   M255_d ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & ecdh . Q . X , 16 ,   M255_Qx ) ;     mpi_init ( & ecdh . Q . Y ) ;    // don't care Y, only init it     mpi_lset ( & ecdh . Q . Z , 1 ) ;     mpi_read_string ( & Q_peer . X , 16 , WTS255_Qx_TO_M255_Qx ) ;     mpi_init ( & Q_peer . Y ) ;     mpi_lset ( & Q_peer . Z , 1 ) ;        MPI_CHK ( ecp_copy ( & ecdh . Qp ,   & Q_peer ) ) ;     my_timer_start ( ) ;     MPI_CHK ( ecdh_calc_secret ( & ecdh , & blen_peer , secret_buf_peer , blen_peer , myrand , NULL ) ) ;     ticks = my_timer_stop ( ) ;     polarssl_printf ( "%s ecdh peer to peer: %lu ticks, %d ms (%d) \n" , ecp_name , ticks , ticks / ( CLOCK_SYS_GetPitFreq ( 0 ) / 1000 ) , CLOCK_SYS_GetPitFreq ( 0 ) ) ;     polarssl_printf ( "Montogemory curve shared secutiy:\n" ) ;     mpi_printf_string ( & ecdh . z , 16 ) ;     polarssl_printf ( "passed\n" ) ;     cleanup :     if ( ret != 0 && verbose != 0 )         polarssl_printf ( "%s test Unexpected error, return code = %08X\n" , ecp_name , ret ) ;     ecdh_free ( & ecdh ) ;     ecp_point_free ( & Q_peer ) ;     if ( verbose != 0 )         polarssl_printf ( "\n" ) ;         return ( 0 ) ;     } ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ ‍ 4. Test result: Test result of curv25519 in  Weierstrass form with LTC:     2. Test result of curve25519 in Montgomery form with software algorithm:      We could see that the shared security both in Weierstrass form with LTC and Montgomery form are “0x1454BDCD6A94D6336AA5A76F3CB40BBE12B65A2CDC9DA6B478948906638896D1”. But the calculation speed with LTC was ten times faster than other one.
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Please note that the document shown above is an approximation of the original document.
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Introduction The K32L3A60VPJ1AT MCU is a next generation Kinetis dual core device.  This device brings processing and multi-tasking capabilities that legacy Kinetis devices did not support.  In addition, the K32L3A60VPJ1AT offers improved power consumption and security features.   Some important aspects of these security features lie in a nonvolatile information register (IFR) memory region and how this region is programmed.  The IFR memory region is a memory space with restricted access separate from the main array and is comprised of an erasable IFR region and a non-erasable IFR region.  The non-erasable IFR region contains the program once identifier and the version identifier.  The erasable IFR region holds the flash security, flash options, mass erase enable, and other such features that governs how the device behaves.  In legacy Kinetis devices, certain fields of the main flash array (flash addresses 0x400 - 0x40F) configured the IFR at boot time.  In the K32L3A60VPJ1AT however, the IFR memory region is no longer controlled in this manner.  This presents challenges when trying to configure these settings.  The purpose of this document is to explain how these settings can be changed and provide some options of how to make these changes.   The first step in configuring the IFR fields is understanding how the these fields are programmed via the hardware. IFR fields are programmed using a special flash command called the Program Index Command. Once programmed, the flash configuration values cannot be reprogrammed without first erasing these fields.  The only way to erase these values is via a mass erase.  This provides security in that the IFR values cannot be changed without erasing the user code as well.  In addition, changes to the user code image cannot affect the bootloader operation, ensuring that a secure boot function can be executed.  The procedure for writing the erasable IFR values is described here: Write FCCOB0 with the Program Index command (0x43). Write FCCOB1 with the Index to be programmed. The possible Indexes are listed in Erasable IFR Map table (table 16.4.1.2 in the K32L3A6 reference manual). Write FCCOB2 and FCCOB3 with 0x00 as they are not used with this command.  Write FCCOB4 - FCCOBB with the desired value.  (Note that not all of the indexes use all of the FCCOB fields.  Be sure to consult the Erasable IFR Map table for which FCCOB fields are used for the index you are programming).  Write 0x70 to the Flash status register (FSTAT) to clear any errors that might have been present from the last flash command. (Note that this command MUST be a byte write.) Write 0x80 to the Flash status register (FSTAT) to initiate the programmed flash command. Poll the FSTAT register until the CCIF bit field (bit field 7) is one ('1').  (Note that it may not be possible in your scripting language to do this, or it may just be easier to simply wait for the flash command to finish executing. In these cases, wait significantly longer than the typical Program Index command completion time of 110us.) After the IFR has been programmed, the IFR should be read back to verify that it completed correctly.  The process for this is as follows: Write FCCOB0 with the Read Index command (0x41). Write FCCOB1 with the Index to be read.   The possible Indexes are listed in Erasable IFR Map table (table 16.4.1.2 in the K32L3A6 reference manual). Write FCCOB2 - FCCOBB with 0. The results will be stored in FCCOB4 - FCCOBB so, these should be cleared to ensure correct results are received. Write 0x70  to the Flash status register (FSTAT) to clear any errors that might have been present from the last flash command. Note that this command MUST be a byte write. Write 0x80 to the Flash status register (FSTAT) to initiate the programmed flash command . Poll the FSTAT register until the CCIF bit field (bit field 7) is one ('1').  (Note that it may not be possible in your scripting language to do this, or it may just be easier to simply wait for the flash command to finish executing. In these cases, wait significantly longer than the maximum Read Index command completion time of 35us.) When using the Program Index Command, you must know which index you want to modify to create the correct flash commands.  The index list can be found in the IFR descriptions section of the Flash chapter in the K32L3A60VPJ1AT reference manual.   There are several different options for programming the FOPT fields. These options are: Using the Kinetis Flash Tool  Using blhost Debugger script Subroutine in user software Option #1: Kinetis Flash Tool Using the Kinetis Flash Tool is likely the most convenient method to change the IFR values.  The Kinetis Flash Tool uses either the UART or USB protocol to interface with the K32L3A6 bootloader and write the IFR fields desired. One of the biggest advantages for the Kinetis Flash Tool is that it provides a graphical interface for users to easily program the IFR fields. The following figure is a picture of the Kinetis Flash Tool and highlights the important input controls and tabs to be used when programming the IFR fields: This field is the Port set box.  It selects the interface (UART or USB) to be used when communicating to the bootloader.  This box also allows for configuration of the interface.  Consult the K32L3A6 reference manual for default configurations.   This is the Flash Utilities tab.  Select this tab to see the controls shown in this image.  This is the Index input field.  The Index of the IFR to program should be entered here.  This is the Hex digits field.  This value will be programmed at the IFR Index indicated in the Index field. The value here should be in hex format WITHOUT the preceding "0x".   This is the Byte Count field.  This tells the utility how many bytes to program and must be the byte count of that IFR field.  Consult the Erasable IFR Map table in the reference manual for the value of the specific IFR index to be programmed.   This is the Program button.  After all of the fields have been filled out, click this button to program the desired IFR location.  Option #2: BLHOST The MCUBoot package also includes a command line executable to interface with the bootloader.  This tool, blhost, can be used to program the IFR fields as well.  The "flash-program-once" command should be used to program the desired IFR location.  The syntax of this command is as follows: flash-program-once <index> <byteCount> <data> So for example, if you want to program the FOPT IFR field (record index 0x84) with 0xFFFFF3FF, the correct syntax using this command would be flash-program-once 0x84 4 FFFFF3FF After programming, the "flash-read-once" command can be used to read back and verify the programmed IFR field(s).  Below is an example using the previous IFR locations flash-read-once 0x84 4 Below is a full example of erasing the device, programming the FOPT IFR, and reading the FOPT IFR back from the command line using blhost.   Option #3: Debugger Script A simple debugger script is another convenient way to write the IFR values.  Debugger scripts are executed in the background of the debug session initiation process (therefore are hidden operations from the user) and typically can be edited easily using any text editor.  However, it can be cumbersome to change the value because this generally must done manually with each programming by the user. With that in mind, it is a good idea to have different connect scripts for different configurations The first step in using a debugger script is writing a debugger script.  The capabilities and syntax of a debugger script are dependent on your toolchain. For the purposes of this document, we will focus on MCUXpresso IDE.  MCUXpresso IDE uses the PokeXX and PeekXX (where XX is 8, 16, or 32 depending on whether you want to byte access, half-word or word access to the desired register) commands, which are debugger agnostic. So the same commands that work on a device will continue to work whether you are debugging with a JLink or CMSIS-DAP, or whatever other debugger you are using. Below is an example of a MCUXpresso connect script which writes the FOPT register and then reads it back for printing to the debug log.  5140 REM ====================Program FOPT=================================== 5150 Poke32 this 0x40023004 0x43840000 5160 REM Stuff FCCOB registers with desired FOPT value 5170 Poke32 this 0x40023008 v% 5171 s% = Peek32 this 0x40023008 5172 Print "New Val ";~s% 5180 Poke32 this 0x4002300c 0x00000000 5180 Poke8 this 0x40023000 0x70 5190 Poke8 this 0x40023000 0x80 5200 wait 1000 6000 REM ================== Read FOPT ===================================== 6001 REM Now read the FOPT back 6010 Poke32 this 0x40023004 0x41840000 6020 Poke32 this 0x40023008 0x00000000 6030 Poke32 this 0x4002300c 0x00000000 6040 Poke8 this 0x40023000 0x70 6050 Poke8 this 0x40023000 0x80 6060 wait 1000 6070 s% = Peek32 this 0x40023008 6080 Print "New FOPT Val ";~s%   Note in the above script that v% is the desired FOPT value and it has been defined in sections of the script not shown (at line 164).  162 REM This is the value to be written to the FOPT 164 v% = 0xfffff3ff After the script is written, MCUXpresso must be told to use the connect script.  This is done in the Debug Configurations window.  Assuming a debug configuration has already been created, click on the arrow next to the green bug icon and select Debug Configurations.   In the resulting dialog box, select the debug configuration you want to use, and select the Linkserver Debug tab.  In the Connect Script field, point MCUXpresso to the location of your connect script.   That's all that needs to be done in the IDE. The selected debug configuration should now be using the script which was written.   Some debuggers will allow standalone command line running of a script, such as a JLink debugger.  As the JLink is one of the more popular external debuggers that we encounter, an example of programming using this script has been provided below.   // Now Program the FOPT w4 0x40023004, 0x43840000 // The 43 selects the Program Index command. The 84 selects the FOPT IFR field. // Stuff the FCCOB registers (4-7) with the FOPT value we want to write. // ** (Boot Settings) ** w4 0x40023008, 0xfffff3ff // Write 0xFFFF_1FFF to boot the M4 from internal Flash. Asserting the NMI pin will force booting from the ROM. // Write FCCOB registers 8-B with dummy values. w4 0x4002300c, 0x00000000 // Write the FSTAT register to clear any errors that could have been present. w1 0x40023000, 0x70 // Launch the flash command. w1 0x40023000, 0x80 // Wait for the flash command to finish. Sleep 1 // Now Read the FOPT back w4 0x40023004, 0x41840000 // The 43 selects the Program Index command. The 84 selects the FOPT IFR field. // Stuff the FCCOB registers (4-7) with the FOPT value we want to write. // ** (Boot Settings) ** w4 0x40023008, 0x00000000 // Write 0xFFFF_F1FF to boot the M0+ from internal Flash. Asserting the NMI pin will force booting from the ROM. // Write FCCOB registers 8-B with dummy values. w4 0x4002300c, 0x00000000 // Write the FSTAT register to clear any errors that could have been present. w1 0x40023000, 0x70 // Launch the flash command. w1 0x40023000, 0x80 // Wait for the flash command to finish. Sleep 1 // Read the memory back to verify the FOPT settings that should be present after reset. mem32 40023000,4 Option #4: Subroutine in User Software Occasionally the requirements of your system will prevent implementation of any of the above methods to program the IFR values.  In these cases, you may need to implement your own subroutine to program the IFR.  The procedure to do this is essentially the same as in the debugger script methods, just written in code instead of an external script.  One key to remember is that you likely will need to erase the entire flash.  So this subroutine should be placed in RAM memory.  Because flash operations are executing, being in RAM will prevent certain flash errors from occurring.   Conclusion In summary, the IFR registers are nonvolatile information registers that govern certain behaviors of the K32L3A MCU.  The IFR is dividing into an  erasable IFR space and non-erasable IFR space, both of which are not a part of the main flash array.  Programming these values requires the use of special flash commands and requires that these values haven't been previously written since the last mass erase.  There are, in general, four different methods of programming the FOPT register settings.  The four methods are: Kinetis Flash Tool BLhost command line interface Debugger script  User software subroutine Each method has its advantages, therefore, you should pick the one that meets your needs and is most convenient. However with any of the methods chosen, the IFR values must not have been programmed before writing erasable IFR fields. It is best to perform a mass erase (which can be done using any of the methods presented in this document) before attempting to program any IFR fields.     
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1. Introduction MCUboot is a common used bootloader for most of Kinetis and i.mx RT devices. It can support download application via UART/USB/CAN/I2C/SPI. It enables quick and easy programming of Kinetis MCUs and i.mx RT MPU through the entire product life cycle, including application development, final product manufacturing, and beyond. K64 is a very popular device in Kinetis family. It has a M4 core, 512k and above flash, 120M main frequency and plenty of interface, such as I2C/SPI/UART/CAN/USB/ENET. But it is a bit awkward that the MCUboot demo of K64 is not include CAN. Does K64’s CAN can’t support bootloader application? No, of course not. Here we are going to port CAN function to K64 bootloader. There are two kind of CAN peripheral in Kinetis family, FlexCAN and MSCAN. FlexCAN is more complex than MSCAN. K64 has a FlexCAN. To speed up our work, we can port FlexCAN driver and related code from TWR-KV46 bootloader. Hardware: two TWR-SER board two sets of TWR-ELEV TWR-K65F150M TWR-K64F120M   Software: MCUXpresso 11.0 MCUBoot 2.0.0 package SDK_2.6.0_TWR-K64F120M 2. Software porting Step 1, copy below files to twrk64f120m_tower_bootloader project. \drivers\fsl_flexcan.c \drivers\fsl_flexcan.h        \source\bootloader\src\flexcan_peripheral_interface.c   Step 2, modify the project to enable the FlexCAN.       In bootloader_config.h, change BL_CONFIG_CAN definition to 1.        In peripherals_MK64F12.c, add #if BL_CONFIG_CAN     // CAN0     {.typeMask = kPeripheralType_CAN ,      .instance = 0,      .pinmuxConfig = can_pinmux_config,      .controlInterface = &g_flexcanControlInterface,      .byteInterface = &g_flexcanByteInterface,      .packetInterface = &g_framingPacketInterface }, #endif     // BL_CONFIG_CAN       Pin mux setting. In peripherals_pinmux.h, add #define BL_ENABLE_PINMUX_CAN0 (BL_CONFIG_CAN) //! CAN pinmux configurations #define CAN0_RX_PORT_BASE PORTB #define CAN0_RX_GPIO_PIN_NUM 18             // PIN 13 in the PTA group #define CAN0_RX_FUNC_ALT_MODE kPORT_MuxAlt2 // ALT mode for CAN0 RX functionality for pin 13 #define CAN0_TX_PORT_BASE PORTB #define CAN0_TX_GPIO_PIN_NUM 19             // PIN 12 in the PTA group #define CAN0_TX_FUNC_ALT_MODE kPORT_MuxAlt2 // ALT mode for CAN0 TX functionality for pin 12       Set clock. FlexCAN clock source can be OSCERCLK or bus clock. Here we use bus clock run at 48Mhz. In flexcan_peripheral.c, add these code. const flexcan_timing_config_t bit_rate_table48m[] = {     { 23, 3, 4, 4, 4 }, /* 125 kHz */     { 11, 3, 4, 4, 4 }, /* 250 kHz */     { 5, 3, 4, 4, 4 },  /* 500 kHz */     { 3, 3, 4, 4, 4 },  /* 750 kHz */     { 2, 3, 4, 4, 4 }   /* 1   MHz */ }; change line 621 FLEXCAN_SetTimingConfig((CAN_Type *)baseAddr, &bit_rate_table48m[s_flexcanInfo.baudrate]); Step 3, compile the project.   3. Function test Software preparation To connect bootloader via CAN bus, NXP has TWR-K65 as bridge. But its source code is not in K64 SDK. It is in MCUBoot2.0.0 package. User can download the package from https://www.nxp.com/design/software/development-software/mcuxpresso-software-and-tools/mcuboot-mcu-bootloader-for-nxp-microcontrollers:MCUBOOT The bridge project is called buspal which can be found in NXP_Kinetis_Bootloader_2_0_0\apps\bus_pal\MK65F18. BusPal is an embedded software tool that is available as a companion to blhost. The tool acts as a bus translator with an established connection with blhost over UART and with the target device over I2C, SPI, or CAN, and assists blhost in carrying out commands and responses from the USB target device. The BusPal is available for selected platforms. The source code for BusPal is provided with the Kinetis bootloader release, it support FRDM-KL25, TWR-KV46F150M and TWR-K65F180M and can be customized to run on other platforms. More detail of buspal is in Kinetis blhost User's Guide appendix C.   Hardware connection TWR-SER has TJA1050 as transceiver. We can connect J7 on both boards. When construct the Tower system, user should take care the power. The power tree is very flexible. Improper setting may cause TJA1050 can’t work.   The Buspal project on TWR-K65F180M use UART1 to connect with computer. The port is on TWR-SER. To make the connection simple, we can share the openSDA UART port. The openSDA UART use UART2, we can jump UART1 signal to J33 and J34 on K65 tower board.     Testing: Open a command window, type >blhost -p com4,57600 –buspal can,0,321,123 – get-property 10 This command can check if the whole system work properly. Then, you can download the code to K64 now. Please type >blhost -p com4,57600 –buspal can,0,321,123 – flash-image xxxxxx.s19 erase
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You can put the code directory in the  SDK_2.6.0_FRDM-K64F\boards\frdmk64f to use. 1 、 Introduction As is known to all, we use debugger to download the program or debug the device. FRDMK64 have the opsenSDA interface on the board, so wo do not need other’s debugger. But if we want to design a board without debugger but can download the program, we can use the bootloader. The bootloader is a small program designed to update the program with the interface such as UART,I2C,SPI and so on. This document will describe a simple bootloader based on the FRDMK64F.The board uses SD card to update the application. User can put the binary file into the card. When the card insert to the board ,the board will update the application automatically. The bootloader code and application code are all provided so that you can test it on your own board.   2 、 Bootloader’s implementation   The schematic for SD card is shown below. The board uses SDHC module to communicate with SD card.                                                  Figure 1.Schematic for SD card   We use the 2.6.0 version of FRDM-K64F’s SDK.You can download the SDK in our website. The link is “mcuxpresso.nxp.com”. The bootloader uses SDHC and fafts file system. So we should add files to support it.                   Figure 2.The support file   In main code, the program will wait until the card has inserted. Then it will find the file named “a000.bin” in sd card to update the application. If the file do not exist, the board will directly execute the application. If there is no application, the program will end. The following code shows how the program wait for inserting sd card. It will also check if the address has the application’s address.                      Figure 3.The code -- wait for inserting card   The following code shows how the program opens the binary file. If sd card doesn’t have the file, the program will go to the application. Figure 4.Open the binary file   If the program opens the file normally, the update will begin. It will erase 200k’s space from 0xa000. You can adjust it according to your project. Now I will explain update’s method in detail. Our data is written to the buffer called “rBUff”. The buffer size is 4K. Before write data to it, it is cleared.  Please note that when we erase or program the flash, we should disable all interrupts and when the operations finish we should enable the interrupts.  The file size will decide which way to write the data to flash.  1 、 If the size < 4k ,we just read the file’s data to buffer and judge if its size aligned with 8 byte. If not , we increase the size of “readSize” to read more data in our data buffer called “rBuffer”. The more data we read is just 0.    2 、 If the size > 4K, we use “remainSize” to record how much data is left. We read 4k each time until its size is smaller than 4k and then repeat step 1. When finish the operation at a   time, we should clear the buffer and increase the sector numer to prepare the next transmission. Figure 5.Write flash operation code   The way to clear the space is shown in the figure. It will initialize the flash and erase the given size from the given address.  “SectorNum” is used to show which sector to erase. Figure 6.Erase operation code   The following figure shows how to write the data to flash.              Figure 7.Program operation code     Before we go to the application, we should modify the configuration we did in the bootloader.     Close the systick, clear its value.     Set the VTOR to default value.     Our bootloader runs in PEE mode. So we should change it to FEI mode.     Disable the all pins. You should disable the global interrupt when run these codes. And don’t forget to enable the global interrupt. Figure 8.Deinitalization code   Then we can go to the application. Figure 9.Go to Application   3 、 Memory relocation The FRDMK64 has the 1M flash, from 0x00000000 to 0x00100000.As shown in figure 10,we use the 0xa000 as the application’s start address.            Figure 10.The memory map   Now, I will show you how to modify the link file for user application in different IDE. In IAR                                    Figure 11.IAR’s ICF In MDK Figure 12.MDK’s SCF   In MCUXpresso Figure 13.MCUXpresso’s flash configuration 4 、 Run the demo 1) Download the bootloader first. 2) Prepare a user application program. We use the “led blinky” as an example. 3) Modify the Link file. 4) Generate the binary file with your IDE, please name it as “a000.bin”. 5) Put it into the sd card like figure 5. Figure 14.SD card’s content        6) Insert the card. And power on. Wait for a moment, the application will execute automatically. 5、Reference 1) Kinetis MCU 的 bootloader 解决方案 2) KEA128_can_bootloader
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The following document contains a list of documents , questions and discussions that are relevant in the community based on the amount of views they are receiving each month. If you are having a problem, doubt or getting started in Kinetis processors or MCUXpresso, you should check the following links to see if your doubt have been already solved in the following documents and discussions. MCUXpresso MCUXpresso Supported Devices Table FAQ: MCUXpresso Software and Tools  Getting Started with MCUXpresso and FRDM-K64F  Generating a downloadable MCUXpresso SDK v.2 package  Quick Start Guide – Using MCUXpresso SDK with PINs&amp;CLOCKs Config Tools  Moving to MCUXpresso IDE from Kinetis Design Studio Kinetis Microcontrollers Guides and examples Using RTC module on FRDM-KL25Z  Baremetal code examples using FRDM-K64F Using IAR EWARM to program flash configuration field Understanding FlexIO  Kinetis K80 FAQ How To: Secure e-mail client (SMTP + SSL) with KSDK1.3 + WolfSSL for FRDM-K64F  Kinetis Bootloader to Update Multiple Devices in a Network - for Cortex-M0+  PIT- ADC- DMA Example for FRDM-KL25z, FRDM-K64F, TWR-K60D100 and TWR-K70  USB tethering host (RNDIS protocol) implementation for Kinetis - How to use your cellphone to provide internet connectivity for your Freedom Board using KSDK Write / read the internal flash Tracking down Hard Faults  How to create chain of pbuf's to be sent? Send data using UDP.  Kinetis Boot Loader for SREC UART, SD Card and USB-MSD loading  USB VID/PID numbers for small manufacturers and such like  Open SDA and FreeMaster OpenSDAv2  Freedom OpenSDA Firmware Issues Reported on Windows 10 Let´s start with FreeMASTER!  The Kinetis Design Studio IDE (KDS IDE) is no longer being actively developed and is not recommended for new designs. The   MCUXpresso   IDE has now replaced the Kinetis Design Studio IDE as the recommended software development toolchain for NXP’s Kinetis, LPC and i.MX   RT Cortex-M based devices. However, this documents continue to receive considerable amount of views in 2019 which means it could be useful to some people. Kinetis Design Studio New Kinetis Design Studio v3.2.0 available Using Kinetis Design Studio v3.x with Kinetis SDK v2.0  GDB Debugging with Kinetis Design Studio  KDS Debug Configurations (OpenOCD, P&amp;E, Segger) How to use printf() to print string to Console and UART in KDS2.0  Kinetis Design Studio - enabling C++ in KSDK projects  Using MK20DX256xxx7 with KDS and KSDK  Kinetis SDK Kinetis SDK FAQ  Introducing Kinetis SDK v2  How to: install KSDK 2.0  Writing my first KSDK1.2 Application in KDS3.0 - Hello World and Toggle LED with GPIO Interrupt 
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Test environment: FRDM-K64F Rev.D IAR ARM Workbench IDE V8.30.1 MCUXpresso SDK for FRDM-K64F v2.4.2(2018-08-02) Test project is [ftm_output_compare] located with default path: ..\FRDM-K64F\boards\frdmk64f\driver_examples\ftm\output_compare Test reason to verify the CnV register is updated on the next FTM counter change. Three test signals: FTM0_CH0 pin as output compare pin will generate square signal with 1.33KHz . FTM0_CH1 pin generate 24KHz Edge-Aligned PWM signal(High-true pulses (clear Output on match)) with 50% duty cycle as FTM counter monitor. When FTM counter change, the FTM0_CH1 will toggle to output high voltage. Test using a delay() function to emulate modify FTM0_CH0 output compare mode and CnV value periodically. There is a GPIO pin will toggle after each delay() function to detect/verify the CnV value actual load point. FlexTimer module setting: The FTM0 refer clock is 60MHz For the FTM0_CH1 pin generate 24KHz PWM signal, the FTM0 MOD value is fixed to 0x9C3 (60MHz/24KHz = 2500).   Below is the overall signals: Test Process Record: During FTM0 module initialization, set the FTM0_CH0 pin output compare value to 0xA00 (more than MOD register value (0x9C3)) with below code: Set the CnV value more than MOD register is to avoid the output compare be set during at start. After that,  enable FTM0 counter and toggle GPIO pin to set a mark: After delay, toggle GPIO pin and update CnV register to 0x270 (the match point is half of the PWM high voltage). The actual signal is : After the first CH0 output compare set match, before set CH0 pin clear on match. It need to keep the CH0 pin with same output compare mode and set CnV back to 0xA00 (more than MOD) again with below code: Then we set CH0 with clear on match mode and update CnV value to 0x752 (middle of CH1 PWM low voltage): The actual signal is: With the similar code, before next CH0 set on match, it need to keep the CH0 pin with same match compare mode setting and CnV change back to 0xA00 (more than MOD). The actual signal is below: Note: During the output compare signal compare mode set/clear change phase, it need to keep previous output compare mode setting, please don't using kFTM_NoOutputSignal setting at code. Otherwise, the output compare signal will exist decay: Test Result: From FTM0 register value, the FTM0_SYNCONF[SWRSTCNT] bit is clear, which means select Legacy PWM synchronization method. The legacy PWM synchronization method will update Output Compare mode CnV register value at the next FTM counter change. The actual signal also verify it. Below is FTM0 all registers value: For the more detailed info, please check the original thread at here. Please check attachment about test code.
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Abstract MK60 is a popular MCU in Kinetis K family. NXP has prepared some kinds of bootloader for TWR-K60D100. But as we all know, MCUBoot2.0.0 is the most update bootloader for Kinetis family. It is a configurable flash programming utility that operates over a serial connection on Kinetis MCUs. It enables quick and easy programming of Kinetis MCUs through the entire product life cycle, including application development, final product manufacturing, and beyond. But sinceTWR-K60D100 is a relatively old platform compare to K22 and K64/K65/K66, MCUBoot2.0.0 did not add MK60 to its target board. If customer don’t like those old bootloader, they have to port it by themselves. This article tries to guide user to port MCUBoot to TWR-K60D100 base on Chapter 10 in Kinetis Bootloader v2.0.0 Reference Manual. This time we use KDS. Software requirement: Kinetis Design Studio 3.2 MCUBootloader 2.0.0 (KBoot 2.0.0) MCUXpresso Config Tools v4.0 SDK_2.2_TWR-K60D100M Porting flow Step 1: First I copy NXP_Kinetis_Bootloader_2_0_0\targets\MK64F12 to NXP_Kinetis_Bootloader_2_0_0\targets\MK60D100. The reason I select MK64 is more likely to MK60 than other target, especially in clock distribution, system integration module and signal multiplexing. In mk60d100\src directory, rename the following files: clock_config_mk64f12.c — > clock_config_mk60d100.c hardware_init_mk64f12.c — > hardware_init _ mk60d100.c memory_map_mk64f12.c — > memory_map _ mk60d100.c peripherals_ mk64f12.c — > peripherals _ mk60d100.c Then copy system_MK60D10.c and system_MK60D10.h from SDK_2.2_TWR-K60D100M to mk60d100\src\startup, copy startup_MK60D10.S from SDK_2.2_TWR-K60D100M to mk60d100\src\startup\gcc. Step 3: Then I copy \src\platform\devices\MK64F12 to \src\platform\devices\mk60d100, copy SDK_2.2_TWR-K60D100M\devices\MK60D10\fsl_device_registers.h, MK60D10.h, and MK60D10_features.h to this new directory. Step 4: Open the KDS project in MK60D100 and replace above old file with new file. After that, I change some setting. Figure 1. Target Processor change   K64 has hardware FPU, but K60D100 hasn’t. So, Float ABI must be changed to software. There is a C/C++ preprocessor define that is used by the bootloader source to configure the bootloader based on the target MCU. This define must be updated to reference the correct set of device-specific header files. Figure 2. Preprocessor change   As to the link file, it needn’t to be change. We can use K64’s link file. TWR-K60D100 use an old version PE debugger. So, the debugger setting must be changed. Figure 3. Debug setting Step 5: MK60’s clock distribution structure is different with MK64. We must modify this part. As it is very complex, use MCUXpresso Config Tools to generate this config code is a sensible choice. Open the tools and step clock structure as below: Figure 4. clock setting After that, generate the code and save them to \src\platform\devices\mk60d100. Since MCUBoot2.0.0 is not base on SDK2.x, we must copy some related driver file from SDK2.x package, include fsl_smc.c, fsl_smc.h, fsl_rtc.c, fsl_rtc.h. Then add them to project. In clock_config_mk60d100.c line 168, the code is clock_mode_switch(s_currentClockMode, kClockMode_FEI_48MHz); Replace it with:      BOARD_BootClockUSB(); // this function was generated by MCUXpresso Config Tool Then add the head file of “clock_config.h”.   Step 6: TWR-K60D100 use UART5 as the debug UART port. Please refer to https://community.nxp.com/docs/DOC-340954 for detail. MCUBootloader2.0.0 do not support UART5. User must add its code in pinmux_utility_common.c.   Step 7: Modify usb_clock_init() in hardware_init_MK60D100.c as below bool usb_clock_init( void ) {    SIM-> SCGC4 &= ~SIM_SCGC4_USBOTG_MASK;      SIM-> CLKDIV2 = ( uint32_t )0x00L;    SIM-> SOPT2 |= SIM_SOPT2_USBSRC_MASK | SIM_SOPT2_PLLFLLSEL(0x01);     //k60 PLLFLLSEL change from 3 to 1      SIM-> SCGC4 |= SIM_SCGC4_USBOTG_MASK;   //   USB0->CLK_RECOVER_IRC_EN = 0x03; //   USB0->CLK_RECOVER_CTRL |= USB_CLK_RECOVER_CTRL_CLOCK_RECOVER_EN_MASK;   //   USB0->CLK_RECOVER_CTRL |= 0x20;      return true; }   Modify memory_map_MK60D100.c as below: memory_map_entry_t g_memoryMap[] = {    { 0x00000000, 0x0007ffff, kMemoryIsExecutable , &g_flashMemoryInterface },   // Flash array (512KB)    { 0x1fff0000, 0x2000ffff, kMemoryIsExecutable , &g_normalMemoryInterface }, // SRAM (256KB) { 0x40000000, 0x4007ffff, kMemoryNotExecutable , &g_deviceMemoryInterface }, // AIPS peripherals      { 0x400ff000, 0x400fffff, kMemoryNotExecutable , &g_deviceMemoryInterface }, // GPIO    { 0xe0000000, 0xe00fffff, kMemoryNotExecutable , &g_deviceMemoryInterface }, // M4 private peripherals    { 0 }                 // Terminator };   Modify bl_uart_irq_config_common.c as below: void UART_SetSystemIRQ( uint32_t instance, PeripheralSystemIRQSetting set) {    switch (instance)    {        case 0: #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 1)        case 1: #endif // #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 1) #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 2)        case 2: #endif // #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 2) #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 3)        case 3: #endif // #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 3) #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 4)        case 4: #endif // #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 4) #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 5)          // add UART5 support        case 5: #endif // #if (FSL_FEATURE_SOC_UART_COUNT > 5)              if (set == kPeripheralEnableIRQ )            {                NVIC_EnableIRQ(uart_irqs[instance]);            }            else            {                NVIC_DisableIRQ(uart_irqs[instance]);            }            break ;    } }   In target_config.h, modify kMaxCoreClock value to 100.   Step 8: After all of the above work, compile the project and download to TWR-K60D100 board. You’ll find KinetisFlashTool.exe can recognize the device by UART. If you establish a Tower system with TWR-SER board, KinetisFlashTool can also recognize the device by USB.   Conclusion: K60 is the base of many Kinetis K series MCU, include K10, K20, K61, K70. If you want to port MCUBoot2.0.0 to these MCU, you just want to update the clock_config file.
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How to byte program SPI flash via QSPI QSPI module are used in many Kinetis MCU, like K8x, K27/28 and KL8x. QSPI expands the internal flash range and can run in a fast speed. Compared to DSPI, QSPI is very complex and often takes a lot of time to learn. In KSDK there are two QSPI demo which shows how to program SPI flash in DMA mode and polling mode. Both of them program the QSPI flash with a word type array. But can the QSPI module program SPI Flash in byte? Yes, this article shows how to do it. Device: FRDM_KL82Z Tool: MCUXpresso IDE Debug firmware: JLINK I build the test project base on KL82 SDK/driver_example/qspi/polling_transfer. To byte program SPI flash, a new LUT item must be added. uint32_t lut[FSL_FEATURE_QSPI_LUT_DEPTH] =    { /* Seq0 : Quad Read */          /* CMD:       0xEB - Quad Read, Single pad */          /* ADDR:       0x18 - 24bit address, Quad pads */          /* DUMMY:     0x06 - 6 clock cyles , Quad pads */          /* READ:       0x80 - Read 128 bytes, Quad pads */        …        …        [32] = QSPI_LUT_SEQ(QSPI_CMD, QSPI_PAD_1, 0x02, QSPI_ADDR, QSPI_PAD_1, 0x18),        [13] = QSPI_LUT_SEQ(QSPI_WRITE, QSPI_PAD_1, 0x1, 0, 0, 0),        …        /* Match MISRA rule */        [63] = 0}; This item tells system how to program a single byte. Then when we write the data to TxBuffer, we must write the byte 4 times. This is because a write transaction on the flash with data size of less than 32 bits will lead to the removal of four data entry from Txbuffer. The valid bit will be used and the rest of the bits will be discard. Then before we start programming, we must set the data size.      QSPI_SetIPCommandSize(EXAMPLE_QSPI,1);   After byte program, we can see the result from 0x68000000. Attachment is the demo project. You can find that 0x03 was written to 0x68000005 after running.
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This hint will demonstrate how to verify ADC conversion rate (with oscilloscope) during testing phase.   Refer to the phenomenon descripted in"Figure 1. Voltage drops at ADC input during sampling process" of AN4373. If too large values is selected for the external RC components, serious voltage disturbances (voltage drops/peaks) at the ADC input (see Figure 1) can be observed. The disturbance at the ADC input in this case results from the basic principle of operation of the sample and hold (S/H) circuit inherent in a SAR ADC. Although we should avoid this happening, but it can be used to measure the ADC conversion rate with oscilloscope during testing phase.   According to the 'Table 30. 16-bit ADC operating conditions' of K64P144M120SF5, we can know that the max ADC conversion rate is 818.330 ksps. Here I create an example by using KDS3.2 with Processor Expert(See the attach file). After select same configuration according to that table, I got almost the same ADC conversion rate. The conversion time meet equation given in Reference Manual too. Now let's measure the ADC conversion rate on FRDM-K64F board with oscilloscope. After connected an external 1.5KΩ resistance, the value of external RC components is big enough to be observed. Below is the waveform observed with oscilloscope, the frequency between voltage drops at ADC input during sampling is about 818 ksps. This test result is consistent with the theoretical calculated value.
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Hey there Kinetis lovers!  We in the Systems Engineering team for Kinetis Microcontrollers see all kinds of situations that customers get into, and none can be particularly troubling like how the reset pin is handled.  The purpose of this document is to provide a list of Frequency Asked Questions (FAQ) that we get here in the Kinetis Systems Engineering department.  This is intended to be a living list and as such, may in no way be complete.  However we hope that you will find the below questions and answers useful.   Q:  Do I need to connect the reset signal to be able to debug a Kinetis device?   This is a commonly asked question. Strictly speaking, you do not need to connect the device reset line of a Kinetis device to the debug connector to be able to debug. The debug port MDM-AP register allows the processor to be held in reset by means of setting the System Reset Request bit using just the SWD_CLK and SWD_DIO lines.   However, before deciding to omit the reset line from your debug connector you should give some careful thought to how this may impact the ability to program and debug the device in certain scenarios. Does the debugger/flash programmer or external debug pod require the reset pin? It may be that the specific tool you are using only supports resetting the device by means of the reset line and does not offer the ability to reset the device by means of the MDM-AP. Have you changed the default function of the debug signals? You may need to use the SWD_CLK and/or the SWD_DIO signals for some other function in your application. This is especially true in low pin count packages. Once the function is changed (by means of the PORTx_PCRy registers) you will no longer have access to the MDM-AP via those signals. If you do not have access to the reset signal then you have no way of preventing the core from executing the code that will disable the SWD function of the pins. So you will not be able to re-program the device. In order to prevent this type of situation you need to either: Setup your code to change the function of the SWD pins several seconds after reset is released so that the debugger can halt the core before this happens. Put some kind of “backdoor” mechanism in your code that does not re-program the SWD function, or re-enables the SWD function, on these pins. For example, a specific character sequence sent via a UART or SPI interface.   Some Kinetis devices allow the reset function of the reset pin to be disabled. In this case you can only use the SWD signals as a means of resetting the device via the MDM-AP. If you change the SWD pin function in addition to disabling the reset pin then you must provide a backdoor means of re-enabling the SWD function if you want to be able to reprogram the device.
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USB secondary ISP bootloader for LPC11U68  Overview        A Secondary Bootloader (SBL) is a piece of code that allows a user application code to be downloaded using alternative channels other than the standard UART0 used by the internal bootloader (on chip). Possible secondary bootloaders can be written for USB, Ethernet, SPI, SSP, CAN, and even I/Os. The secondary bootloader utilizes IAP as a method to update the user’s application code.        The internal bootloader is the firmware that resides in the microcontroller’s boot ROM block and is executed on power-up and resets. After the boot ROM’s execution, the secondary bootloader would be executed, which will then execute the user application.      The purpose of this document is to use USB as an example for developing the secondary bootloader and the code was tested using the LPCXpresso 11U68 evaluation board.       The MSCD presents easy integration with a PC‘s operating systems. This class allows the embedded system’s flash memory space be represented as a folder in Windows/Linux. The user can update the flash with the binary image using drag and drop, so the following sections will present a guideline for development and implementation of the USB secondary bootloader design, configuration, and test.      USB secondary bootloader code is base on the USB Mass Storage Class demo. However in this application note, we do not attempt to explain how the Mass Storage Class is implemented. Fig 1 LPCXpresso Board for LPC11U68 Setup file (sbl_config.h)       This file configures the secondary bootloader. The user should change this according to their application.       Some definitions and explanation: MAX_USER_SECTOR – This parameter is device dependent. In a 256 KB device, it will be 29 sectors, however the size of the last 5 sectors become the 32 KB instead of the 4 KB, so in the application, MAX_USER_SECTOR chooses 23 (Fig 2). CRP – Code Read Protection. This parameter allows select the desired CRP level. Choosing CRP3, the primary bootloader’s entry mechanism check will be bypassed. Fig 3 for CRP details. Fig 2 Flash sectors in LPC11U68 Fig 3 Code Read Protection (CRP) Secondary bootloader entry        The boot sequence shown below is used when entering the secondary USB bootloader. Fig 4 Using an entry pin      The secondary USB bootloader will check the status of a GPIO pin to determine if it should enter into programming mode. This is the easiest way since no post processing is needed. And this secondary bootloader uses P0.16. Automatic secondary bootloader entry       If the secondary USB bootloader detects that no user application is present upon reset, it will automatically enter programming mode. ISP entry disabled     If the secondary USB bootloader detects that a user application has already been installed and that CRP is set to level 3, then it will not enter ISP mode. Bootloader size        Since the bootloader resides within user programmable flash, it should be designed as small as possible. The larger the secondary USB bootloader is the less flash space is available to the user application. By default, the USB bootloader has been designed to fit within the first two flash sectors (Sector 0-1) so that the user application can start from sector 2. Code placement in flash       The secondary bootloader is placed at the starting address 0x0 so that it will be executed by the LPC11U68 after reset. Flash programming is based on a sector-by-sector basis. This means that the code for the user application should not be stored in any of the same flash sectors as the secondary bootloader and for efficient use of the flash space, the user application should be flashed into the next available empty sector after the bootloader.        In the application, the start sector is 3 (0x0000_3000) which is used to store the user application code. User application execution        If the SW2 button is not depressed, the secondary bootloader will start the execution of the user application. Execution of the user application is performed by updating the stack pointer (SP) and program counter (PC) registers. The SP points to the new location where the user application has allocated the top of its stack .The PC on the other hand contains the location of the first executable instruction in the user application. From here on the CPU will continue normal execution and initializations specified on the user application. By default, the bootloader uses 2 flash sectors. Therefore, to utilize the remaining flash, the secondary bootloader will look for the user application at 0x00003000 Handing interrupts      The LPC11U68 contains a NVIC (Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller) that handles all interrupts. When an interrupt occurs the processor uses the vector table to locate the address of the handler.      On the LPC11U68 the vector table is located in the same area of flash memory as the secondary bootloader. The secondary bootloader is designed to be permanently resident in flash memory and therefore it is not possible to update the contents of the vector table every time a new application is downloaded.       The Cortex-M3 core allows the vector table to be remapped; however this is not the case with the Cortex-M0. Because of this, the secondary bootloader has been designed to redirect the processor to the handler listed in a vector table located in the application area of flash memory, see Fig 5. Fig 5 User application       To execute the user application the secondary USB bootloader will load the new SP and PC values into their respective registers, allowing the CPU to execute the new code correctly. Therefore, the user application must be built so that it can run from that starting address. In the application, this address is 0x00003E00. So relocate the user application storage area by following corresponding IDE’s User Guide.  Testing  Creating the binary file             In this application, I build the demos_switch_blinky which is from the LPCOpen library to create the binary which is compatible with the secondary USB bootloader. The binary see Table 1. 08 04 00 10 B5 09 00 00 07 07 00 00 9B 09 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 A1 E1 FF EF 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 A7 09 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 E5 09 00 00 27 03 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 01 03 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E3 09 00 00 E1 09 00 00 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 38 B5 63 4C 25 68 28 07 07 D5 96 20 E0 60 61 48 00 78 00 28 01 D1 00 F0 F7 F8 20 68 0C 21 29 40 01 43 21 60 31 BD 38 B5 5A 4C A0 78 40 1C A0 70 C0 B2 65 28 34 DB 00 25 A5 70 20 78 00 28 2F D0 60 78 00 28 03 D0 02 28 16 D0 0A D3 20 E0 01 21 00 F0 CA F8 00 21 01 20 00 F0 C6 F8 00 21 02 20 13 E0 01 21 01 20 00 F0 BF F8 00 21 00 20 00 F0 BB F8 00 21 02 20 08 E0 01 21 00 F0 B5 F8 00 21 01 20 00 F0 B1 F8 00 21 01 20 00 F0 AD F8 00 E0 65 70 60 78 40 1C 60 70 C0 B2 03 28 00 DB 65 70 31 BD F8 B5 00 F0 36 F9 00 F0 C2 F8 3A 48 01 68 02 22 91 43 01 60 01 68 38 4A 0A 40 02 60 35 4F 01 20 38 70 36 48 00 68 0A 21 00 F0 2B F9 1E 21 00 F0 28 F9 40 1E 00 26 80 21 49 04 88 42 0C D2 30 49 48 60 30 48 02 68 12 02 12 0A C0 23 1B 06 13 43 03 60 8E 60 07 20 08 60 01 20 2B 49 08 60 23 4C 20 00 00 F0 18 F9 29 48 01 68 80 22 12 03 0A 43 02 60 20 68 01 21 01 43 21 60 20 68 01 21 88 43 20 60 20 68 80 21 88 43 20 60 A6 60 FA 20 80 00 60 60 20 68 40 21 01 43 21 60 20 68 80 21 01 43 21 60 20 68 80 20 80 04 1A 49 08 60 20 68 30 21 01 43 21 60 18 4D 28 78 00 28 12 D1 38 78 00 28 0E D0 00 21 00 20 00 F0 3E F8 00 21 01 20 00 F0 3A F8 00 21 02 20 00 F0 36 F8 FA 20 80 00 E0 60 3E 70 E8 7B 00 28 E6 D1 01 20 38 70 E3 E7 00 40 02 40 04 00 00 10 00 20 00 A0 FF FF FE FF 00 00 00 10 10 E0 00 E0 20 ED 00 E0 1C 80 04 40 14 82 04 40 00 E1 00 E0 01 00 00 A0 49 01 40 18 83 54 70 47 10 B5 32 4C 20 00 00 F0 BF F8 E1 21 49 02 20 00 00 F0 C7 F8 03 20 E0 60 81 20 A0 60 80 20 20 63 10 BD 00 00 03 28 00 DB 70 47 80 B5 01 23 4B 40 2D A1 0A 5C 2B A1 09 5C A0 20 00 06 FF F7 DC FF 01 BD 00 00 03 28 00 DB 70 47 10 B5 A0 21 09 06 24 A2 12 5C 92 00 89 18 8C 22 92 01 01 23 00 BF 21 A4 20 5C 83 40 8B 50 10 BD 00 00 F8 B5 FF F7 C7 FF A0 25 2D 06 28 00 00 F0 B6 F8 00 24 00 BF 18 A6 31 5D 88 00 28 18 80 22 92 01 80 18 00 BF 15 A2 12 5D 03 68 01 27 97 40 1F 43 07 60 01 23 28 00 FF F7 A9 FF 64 1C 03 2C EA DB F1 BD 00 00 80 B5 07 48 01 68 80 22 52 02 0A 43 02 60 19 22 0A A1 04 48 00 F0 98 F8 01 BD 00 00 00 80 00 40 80 80 04 40 00 40 04 40 80 B5 FF F7 E9 FF 00 F0 B1 F8 01 BD 02 02 02 00 11 10 12 00 00 03 81 00 00 04 81 00 00 05 81 00 00 08 81 00 00 09 81 00 00 0B 02 00 00 0C 02 00 00 0D 02 00 00 0E 02 00 00 12 81 00 00 13 81 00 00 17 01 00 01 09 01 00 01 0B 81 00 01 0E 81 00 01 14 82 00 01 15 82 00 01 16 81 00 01 17 82 00 01 1A 81 00 01 1B 81 00 01 1D 81 00 02 00 01 00 02 01 01 00 02 03 82 00 80 B5 00 F0 EF F8 01 49 08 60 01 BD 00 00 00 10 80 B5 03 4A 12 68 12 69 52 68 90 47 02 BD 00 00 F8 1F FF 1F 03 48 01 68 80 22 D2 05 0A 43 02 60 70 47 00 00 80 80 04 40 15 49 01 22 8A 61 0A 68 80 23 5B 01 13 43 0B 60 07 21 81 60 10 21 81 62 70 47 70 B5 04 00 0D 00 01 20 0E 49 08 60 00 F0 8F F8 06 00 29 01 FF F7 D3 FF 01 00 E0 68 80 22 02 43 E2 60 C8 B2 20 60 08 04 00 0E 60 60 E0 68 80 22 90 43 E0 60 30 00 FF F7 C2 FF 70 BD 00 00 80 80 04 40 98 80 04 40 02 48 01 68 40 22 0A 43 02 60 70 47 80 80 04 40 00 2A 00 D1 70 47 30 B4 0C 68 23 0C 25 0A E4 B2 00 2C 12 D0 02 2C 01 D0 0A D3 11 E0 ED B2 AC 00 04 19 02 2D 01 DB F4 25 00 E0 F0 25 63 51 07 E0 2D 06 AC 0D 04 19 23 66 02 E0 2D 06 AC 0D 03 51 09 1D 52 1E E0 D1 30 BC 70 47 FE E7 38 B5 20 20 00 F0 E8 F8 00 20 00 90 11 48 02 E0 00 99 49 1C 00 91 00 99 81 42 F9 DB 01 20 00 F0 1F F8 0D 48 01 68 01 24 03 22 91 43 21 43 01 60 80 20 00 F0 C7 F8 09 4D 23 20 28 60 80 20 00 F0 CB F8 68 68 C0 07 FC D5 2C 67 03 20 00 F0 10 F8 31 BD 00 00 C4 09 00 00 10 C0 03 40 08 80 04 40 42 49 FF E7 08 60 00 20 48 60 01 20 48 60 70 47 3F 49 F7 E7 43 A0 CA 05 12 0F 92 00 80 58 C9 06 C9 0E 49 1C 49 00 FF F7 49 FF 00 BD 00 B5 00 20 3B 49 03 22 8B 6E 13 40 11 D0 02 2B 11 D0 02 D3 03 2B 10 D0 00 BD 89 6B 0A 40 08 D0 01 2A 03 D0 03 2A 1A D1 31 48 00 E0 2F 48 00 68 00 BD 2D 48 00 BD C9 69 D6 E7 8B 6B 1A 40 08 D0 01 2A 03 D0 03 2A 05 D1 29 48 00 E0 27 48 00 68 00 E0 25 48 09 68 C9 06 C9 0E 49 1C 48 43 00 BD 00 00 00 00 10 B5 00 20 22 4C 03 21 A2 6E 0A 40 30 D0 02 2A 15 D0 21 D3 03 2A 2C D1 A2 6B 11 40 08 D0 01 29 03 D0 03 29 05 D1 19 48 00 E0 17 48 00 68 00 E0 14 48 21 68 C9 06 C9 0E 49 1C 48 43 19 E0 E1 69 14 A0 CA 05 12 0F 92 00 80 58 C9 06 C9 0E 49 1C 49 00 FF F7 EB FE 0C E0 A2 6B 11 40 08 D0 01 29 03 D0 03 29 05 D1 09 48 00 E0 07 48 00 68 00 E0 04 48 21 6F FF F7 DA FE 10 BD 00 00 40 80 04 40 70 80 04 40 00 1B B7 00 D0 09 00 00 D4 09 00 00 08 80 04 40 00 00 00 00 C0 27 09 00 90 05 10 00 C0 5C 15 00 F0 B3 1A 00 20 0B 20 00 00 9F 24 00 E0 32 29 00 C0 C6 2D 00 50 97 31 00 E0 67 35 00 70 38 39 00 00 09 3D 00 40 16 40 00 80 23 43 00 C0 30 46 00 0B 49 0A 68 10 43 09 4A 02 40 C8 20 00 02 10 43 08 60 70 47 06 49 0A 68 82 43 04 48 10 40 C8 22 12 02 02 43 0A 60 70 47 00 00 00 00 FF 25 00 00 38 82 04 40 70 B4 01 21 00 22 13 E0 04 68 00 1D 0C 42 02 D0 4D 46 6D 1E 64 19 22 60 24 1D 1B 1F 04 2B FA D2 25 00 9E 07 01 D5 22 80 AD 1C 0B 40 00 D0 2A 70 03 68 00 1D 00 2B E7 D1 70 BC 70 47 10 B5 07 49 79 44 18 31 06 4C 7C 44 16 34 04 E0 08 1D 0A 68 89 18 88 47 01 00 A1 42 F8 D1 10 BD 08 00 00 00 14 00 00 00 9D FF FF FF 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 10 00 00 00 00 00 F0 0B F8 00 28 01 D0 FF F7 DE FF 00 20 00 BF 00 BF FF F7 0C FD 00 F0 02 F8 01 20 70 47 80 B5 00 F0 02 F8 01 BD FE E7 07 46 38 46 00 F0 02 F8 FB E7 FE E7 20 21 09 03 26 31 18 20 AB BE F9 E7 01 48 80 47 01 48 00 47 D9 09 00 00 C5 09 00 00 00 BF 00 BF 00 BF 00 BF FF F7 D2 FF 00 1B B7 00 00 80 00 00 80 B5 FF F7 DF FD 01 BD FE E7 FE E7 FE E7                                                    Table 1 Drag and drop the binary file Running the secondary bootloader, and connect a USB cable between the PC and the J3, see Fig 6; Fig 6 Drag and drop the binary file to the driver, see Fig 7;    Fig 7 Review the values of the user application in the relative area , see Fig 8; Fig 8
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Hi All, Embedded systems industry are tending to optimized their products to offers a better performance in power management, aiming for longer battery life, using low-power modes in the application without reducing functionality. With this in mind, it arises a requirement in these compact devices, power supply monitor. This document will include a brief description of some features available in different power modes of the Kinetis family and it will focus on how we can implement these features, using KSDK 2.0, to monitor power supply voltage and detect when this voltage has fallen at determined value. This document is based MCU K21 but the same principles can be applied to any Kinetis K and L family. It will use KDS 3.2 as IDE and TWR-K21F120M evaluation board as target.   Hope you can find it useful Best Regards Jorge Alcala
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Encrypted QuadSPI image Implementation       The Kinetis family of MCU includes the system security and flash protection features that can be used to protect code and data from unauthorized access or modification. This application note discusses the usage of encrypted boot with the KBOOT and experiment with the FRDM-K82 board. FRDM-K82 board
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Overview          KBOOT v2.0 had been released in the Q2 of the 2016 and it has a lot of new features versus the previous version. For instance, the USB peripheral can work as Mass Storage Class device mode now, not just only supports the HID interface. And in following, USB MSD Bootloader implementation will be illustrated. Preparation FRDM-K64F board Fig1 FRDM-K64F KBOOT v2.0 downloading: KBOOT v2.0 IDE: IAR v7.50 Application demo: KSDK v2.0   Flash-resident bootloader           The K64_120 doesn’t contain the ROM-based bootloader, so the flash-resident bootloader need to be programmed in the K64 and the flash-resident bootloader can be used to download and program an initial application image into a blank area on the flash, and to later update the application.         I. Open the the bootloader project, for instance, using the IAR and select the freedom_bootloader demo         The Fig 2 illustrates the bootloader project for K64 which resides in ~\NXP_Kinetis_Bootloader_2_0_0\NXP_Kinetis_Bootloade r_2_0_0\targets\MK64F12. Fig 2      II. After compiles the demo, then clicks the  button to program the demo to the K64 Linker file modification       According to the freedom_bootloader demo, the vector table relocation address of the application demo has been adapted to the 0xa000 (Table 1), however the default start address of the application is 0x0000_0000. So it’s necessary to modify the linker file to fit the freedom_bootloader and the Table 2 illustrates what the modifications are.                                                     Table 1 // The bootloader will check this address for the application vector table upon startup. #if !defined(BL_APP_VECTOR_TABLE_ADDRESS) #define BL_APP_VECTOR_TABLE_ADDRESS 0xa000 #endif                                                   Table 2 define symbol __ram_vector_table_size__ = isdefinedsymbol(__ram_vector_table__) ? 0x00000400 : 0; define symbol __ram_vector_table_offset__ = isdefinedsymbol(__ram_vector_table__) ? 0x000003FF : 0; //define symbol m_interrupts_start       = 0x00000000; //define symbol m_interrupts_end         = 0x000003FF; define symbol m_interrupts_start       = 0x0000a000; define symbol m_interrupts_end         = 0x0000a3FF; //define symbol m_flash_config_start     = 0x00000400; //define symbol m_flash_config_end       = 0x0000040F; define symbol m_flash_config_start     = 0x0000a400; define symbol m_flash_config_end       = 0x0000a40F; //define symbol m_text_start             = 0x00000410; define symbol m_text_start             = 0x0000a410; define symbol m_text_end               = 0x000FFFFF; define symbol m_interrupts_ram_start   = 0x1FFF0000; define symbol m_interrupts_ram_end     = 0x1FFF0000 + __ram_vector_table_offset__; define symbol m_data_start             = m_interrupts_ram_start + __ram_vector_table_size__; define symbol m_data_end               = 0x1FFFFFFF; define symbol m_data_2_start           = 0x20000000; define symbol m_data_2_end             = 0x2002FFFF; /* Sizes */ if (isdefinedsymbol(__stack_size__)) {   define symbol __size_cstack__        = __stack_size__; } else {   define symbol __size_cstack__        = 0x0400; } if (isdefinedsymbol(__heap_size__)) {   define symbol __size_heap__          = __heap_size__; } else {   define symbol __size_heap__          = 0x0400; } define exported symbol __VECTOR_TABLE  = m_interrupts_start; define exported symbol __VECTOR_RAM    = isdefinedsymbol(__ram_vector_table__) ? m_interrupts_ram_start : m_interrupts_start; define exported symbol __RAM_VECTOR_TABLE_SIZE = __ram_vector_table_size__; define memory mem with size = 4G; define region m_flash_config_region = mem:[from m_flash_config_start to m_flash_config_end]; define region TEXT_region = mem:[from m_interrupts_start to m_interrupts_end]                           | mem:[from m_text_start to m_text_end]; define region DATA_region = mem:[from m_data_start to m_data_end]                           | mem:[from m_data_2_start to m_data_2_end-__size_cstack__]; define region CSTACK_region = mem:[from m_data_2_end-__size_cstack__+1 to m_data_2_end]; define region m_interrupts_ram_region = mem:[from m_interrupts_ram_start to m_interrupts_ram_end]; define block CSTACK    with alignment = 8, size = __size_cstack__   { }; define block HEAP      with alignment = 8, size = __size_heap__     { }; define block RW        { readwrite }; define block ZI        { zi }; initialize by copy { readwrite, section .textrw }; do not initialize  { section .noinit }; place at address mem: m_interrupts_start    { readonly section .intvec }; place in m_flash_config_region              { section FlashConfig }; place in TEXT_region                        { readonly }; place in DATA_region                        { block RW }; place in DATA_region                        { block ZI }; place in DATA_region                        { last block HEAP }; place in CSTACK_region                      { block CSTACK }; place in m_interrupts_ram_region            { section m_interrupts_ram }; SB file generation     I. Brief introduction of SB file         The Kinetis bootloader supports loading of the SB files. The SB file is a Freescale-defined boot file format designed to ease the boot process. The file is generated using the Freescale elftosb tool. The format supports loading of elf or srec files in a controlled manner, using boot commands such as load, jump, fill, erase, and so on. The boot commands are prescribed in the input command file (boot descriptor .bd) to the elftosb tool. The format also supports encryption of the boot image using AES-128 input key.          And right now, the USB MSD bootloader only support SB file drag and drop.    II. Generate the BIN file         After open the hello_world demo in the IAR, using project options dialog select the "Output Converter" and change the output format to "binary" for outputting .BIN format image (Fig 3). Next, build the application demo, then the .BIN file will be generated after the building completes. Fig 3      III. Create BD file There is a template BD file which resides in the ~\NXP_Kinetis_Bootloader_2_0_0\NXP_Kinetis_Bootloader_2_0_0\apps\led_demo\src. Next, adapt the BD file by referring to the Kinetis Elftosb User's Guide , the following table shows the BD file content.                                                    Table 3 sources {         # BIN File path         myBINFile = "hello_world.bin"; } section (0) {         #1. Erase the internal flash         erase 0x0000a000..0x0010000;         #2. Load BIN File to internal flash         load myBINFile > 0xa000;         #3. Reset target.         reset; }      IV.  SB file generation          After creating the BD file shown in the following figure, copy the "hello_world.bin", elftosb.exe, and the BD file into the same directory. Then, open the window with command prompt and invoke elftosb such as “elftosb –V –c FRDM-K64F.bd –o image.sb”. The elftosb processes the FRDM-K64F.bd file and generates an image.sb file. Elftosb also outputs the commands list as shown in Fig 4. Fig 4     V. Application code updating       Plug a USB cable from the PC to the USB connector J26 to power the board , then keep holding the button SW2 down until press and release the Reset button SW1, it can force the K64_120 enter the BOOTLOADER mode. Next, plug another USB cable from the PC to the USB connector J22 (Fig 5), the FSL Loader will come out after completes the enumeration and it will appear as a removable storage driver (Fig 6).  Copy & paste or drag & drop the image.sb to the FSL Loader drive to update the application code, and the Fig 7 illustrates the result of application code runs. Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7
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With the merger of NXP and Freescale, the NXP USB VID/PID program, which was previously deployed on LPC Microcontrollers, has been extended to Kinetis Microcontrollers and i.MX Application Processors. The USB VID/PID Program enables NXP customers without USB-IF membership to obtain free PIDs under the NXP VID. What is USB VID/PID Program? The NXP USB VID program will allow users to apply for the NXP VID and get up to 3 FREE PIDs. For more details, please review the application form and associated FAQ below. Steps to apply for the NXP USB VID/PID Program Step 1: Fill the application form with all relevant details including contact information. Step 2: NXP will review the application and if approved, will issue you the PIDs within 4 weeks FAQ for the USB VID/PID Program Can I use this VID for any microcontroller in the NXP portfolio? >> No. This program is intended only for the Cortex M based series of LPC Microcontrollers and Kinetis Microcontrollers, and Cortex A based series of i.MX Application Processors. What are the benefits of using the NXP VID/PID Program? >> USB-IF membership not required >> Useful for low volume production runs that do not exceed 10,000 units >> Quick time to market Can I use the NXP VID and issued PID/s for USB certification? >> You may submit a product using the NXP VID and issued PID/s for compliance testing to qualify to use the Certified USB logo in conjunction with the product, but you must provide written authorization to use the VID from NXP at the time of registration of your product for USB certification. Additionally, subject to prior approval by USB-IF, you can use the NXP VID and assigned PID/s for the purpose of verifying or enabling interoperability. What are the drawbacks of using the NXP VID/PID program? >> Production run cannot exceed 10,000 units. See NXP VID application for more details. >> Up to 3 PIDs can be issued from NXP per customer. If more than 3 PIDs are needed, you have to get your own VID from usb.org: http://www.usb.org/developers/vendor/ >> The USB integrators list is only visible to people who are members of USB-IF. NXP has full control on selecting which products will be visible on the USB integrators list. How do I get the VID if I don't use NXP’s VID? >> You can get your own VID from usb.org. Please visit http://www.usb.org/developers/vendor/ Do I also get the license to use the USB-IF’s trademarked and licensed logo if I use the NXP VID? >> No. No other privileges are provided other than those listed in the NXP legal agreement. If you wish to use USB-IF’s trademarked and licensed USB logo, please follow the below steps:                 1. The company must be a USB vendor (i.e. obtain a USB vendor ID).                 2. The company must execute the USB-IF Trademark License Agreement.                 3. The product bearing the logo must successfully pass USB-IF Compliance Testing and appear on the Integrators List under that company’s name. Can I submit my product for compliance testing using the NXP VID and assigned PIDs? >> Yes, you would be able to submit your products for USB-IF certification by using the NXP VID and assigned PID. However, if the product passes the compliance test and gets certified, it will be listed under “NXP Semiconductors” in the Integrators list. Also, you will not have access to use any of the USB-IF trademarked and licensed USB logos. How long does it take to obtain the PID from NXP? >> It can take up to 4 weeks to get the PIDs from NXP once the application is submitted. Are there any restrictions on the types of devices that can be developed using the NXP issued PIDs? >> This service requireds the USB microcontroller to be NXP products. Can I choose/request for a specific PID for my application? >> No. NXP will not be able to accommodate such requests.
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MAPS-KS22 Board Introduction: MAPS boards are localization evaluation boards for Chinese customers. The MAPS boards are suitable for NXP MCU product, with low coat, more flexibility and easy-copy features, which matching with local customer requirements and better for learning and product evaluation. MAPS board includes four parts board, which are MCU Board, Peripheral Board, Application Board & Socket Board. The naming of MAPS are using the four-part board initial letter. MCU bo ard i s NXP Kinetis MCU based evaluation main board with chip related special module interface/device, such as graphic LCD/ENET interface an d etc. The MCU board fan out all MCU pins as test points for measuring. The MCU board also provide two 32-pin socket to connect external peripheral board or application board. Peripheral Board collects more general device into one board and using two 32-pin socket connects with MCU board. The MAPS-Dock is the first peripheral board, which with below configuration: Micor-SD card slot; six touch pads; USB FS interface; IrDA transceiver; one SPI Interface (SPI-Flash); two UART interface; four buttons; one I2S interface (audio codec); one CAN interface; two potentionmeter; one DAC output interface; 128x64 monochrome LCD; one 5-way button. It also with SWD debugger on board and USB CDC virtual COM. Application Board designed for special applications, such as motor control, IOT, Smart Home, Wireless Charger and etc. Socket Board provides interface for FreeDOM boards/Arduino boards/Customer defined boards. MAPS-KS22 board MCU board for KS22 chip evaluation. KS22 MCU is based on the ARM® Cortex®-M4 core with 120MHz MCUs with FPU, offering full-speed USB 2.0 OTG, in addition to other features like USB crystal-less functionality. MAPS-KS22 oobe demo porting process MAPS-KS22 oobe demo is based KSDK V1.0, which will show Freescale LOGO on the SPI color LCD and meanwhile use FlexIO I2S to play an audio on microphone. Step1: visit Kinetis Expert website (http://kex.nxp.com/en/welcome) to download MAPS-KS22 KSDK V2.0 software: Step2: download [Kinetis SDK Project Generator Tool] from below link and generate oobe demo project based on MAPS-KS22 SDK V2.0 software: https://www.nxp.com/webapp/sps/download/license.jsp?colCode=KSDK-PROJECT-GENERATOR-TOOL&appType=file1&location=null&DOWNLOAD_ID=null Step 3: After that, open the oobe project, which located at default path: C:\Freescale\SDK_2.0_MAPS-KS22\boards\mapsks22\user_apps\oobe\iar The default project is based on <hello-world> demo, it need to add LED control code. Those part of code could be found at <main.c> file and related pin muxing code at <pin_mux.c> file. Step 4: Modify ili9341 related driver: For the oobe project with two major functions, the first one is to display Freescale LOGO at LCD. The MAPS-KS22 board graphic LCD is using ili9341 TFT LCD driver with SPI interface with KS22 chip. The previous oobe project is using GPIO pins emulate SPI communication, we will make the similar application with KSDK V2.0 driver. Most modification based on the GPIO pins control. Please check below code at <ili9341.h> file, which call KSDK V2.0 GPIO driver: #define ILI9341_CS_HIGH()       GPIO_SetPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_CS_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_CS_PIN) #define ILI9341_CS_LOW()        GPIO_ClearPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_CS_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_CS_PIN) #define ILI9341_CLK_HIGH()      GPIO_SetPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_CLK_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_CLK_PIN)  #define ILI9341_CLK_LOW()       GPIO_ClearPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_CLK_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_CLK_PIN) #define ILI9341_MOSI_HIGH()     GPIO_SetPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_MOSI_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_MOSI_PIN) #define ILI9341_MOSI_LOW()      GPIO_ClearPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_MOSI_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_MOSI_PIN)      #define ILI9341_MISO_HIGH()     GPIO_SetPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_MISO_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_MISO_PIN) #define ILI9341_MISO_LOW()      GPIO_ClearPinsOutput(BOARD_LCD_MISO_GPIO, 1U << BOARD_LCD_MISO_PIN) And it also need to add ili9341 control pin muxing initialization code at <pin_mux.c> file. Step 5: We could modify the Freescale logo with new NXP logo, which could using [Embedded GUI Conversion Utility3.0] tool. This tool could be downloaded from below link:  http://tinyurl.com/eGUI-Convert  The conversion result of the graphic data is 16-bit array, which need be transfer to 8-bit array. After that, compile and download the image to the board, it with below result: Step 6: The oobe demo provide another function to play music with MAPS-DOCK board WM8960 codec chip, then using headphone will hear the sound. For the KS22 with FlexIO module, the demo will use FlexIO emulating I2S bus to transfer data to WM8960 codec chip. About I2S bus MCLK clock source, the MAPS-KS22 provide two selection, one is using TPM1_CH1 pin, the other one is using I2S0_MCLK pin with JP5 jumper selection. In oobe demo, we use TPM1_CH1 pin to generate 12MHz MCLK clock with TPM module output compare mode. Related code, please refer below tpm_init_output_compare() function at <main.c> file: //enable clock gating of tpm1 CLOCK_EnableClock(kCLOCK_Tpm1); //set TMP output compare mode TPM_SetupOutputCompare(BOARD_TPM_BASEADDR, BOARD_TPM_CHANNEL, kTPM_ToggleOnMatch, 1U); BOARD_TPM_BASEADDR->MOD = 0x1; TPM_StartTimer(BOARD_TPM_BASEADDR, kTPM_SystemClock);   //TPM counter increments on every TPM counter clock Step 7: WM8960 is a stereo CODEC chip provide I2C port for chip configuration. There need to initialization the WM8960 chip before using it with related driver <wm8960.c> & <wm8960.h> files. The MAPS-KS22 board using LPI2C0 module connects with WM8960 chip, so there need to port using LPI2C driver of KSDK V2.0 and modify the WM8960 driver related. The LPI2C module initialization code located at <main.c> with lpi2c_master_init() function. The WM8960 driver major modification with WOLFSON_WriteReg() function at <wm8960.c> file, calling the LPI2C driver of KSDK V2.0 with below code:  wolfson_status_t WOLFSON_WriteReg(uint8_t reg, uint16_t val) {       uint8_t cmd,buff;        status_t ret;        cmd = (reg << 1) | ((val >> 😎 & 0x0001);    // register address        buff = val & 0xFF;     //data        reg_cache[reg] = val;      // copy data to cache         uint8_t data[2];         data[0] = cmd;         data[1] = buff;         //start lpi2c tx operation                   ret = LPI2C_MasterStart(LPI2C0, WM8960_I2C_ADDR, kLPI2C_Write);           // send two data with register address and related value          ret = LPI2C_MasterSend(LPI2C0, data, 2);                //stop lpi2c tx operation                  ret = LPI2C_MasterStop(LPI2C0);               if(ret != kStatus_Success)          {  return kStatus_WOLFSON_I2CFail;  }          return kStatus_WOLFSON_Success; } After WM8960 chip driver modification, there could call related driver to initialize WM8960 chip and configure the communication interface with I2S bus. Following steps focus on how to transfer data to WM8960 codec with I2S bus. Step 8:  The FlexIO modul will simulate I2S bus call FlexIO_I2S_MasterInit() function in <main.c> file to initialize FlexIO module as I2S master. There using FXIO0_D4 pin as I2S bit clock pin, using FXIO0_D5 pin as I2S Transmit pin and using FXIO0_D6 pin as I2S Transmit Frame Sync pin. KSDK V2.0 provide FlexIO for I2S driver located at <fsl_flexio_i2s.h> file. Step 9: There will call eDMA with FlexIO module to reduce the core work load during the I2S data transfer. It will initialize the eDMA & DMAMUX modules for FlexIO. Related code located at <main.c> file with ConfigDMAforFlexIOI2STX() function: void ConfigDMAforFlexIOI2STX(void) { EDMA_GetDefaultConfig(&dmaConfig); EDMA_Init(EXAMPLE_DMA, &dmaConfig); EDMA_CreateHandle(&dmaHandle, EXAMPLE_DMA, EXAMPLE_CHANNEL); DMAMUX_Init(DMAMUX0); DMAMUX_SetSource(DMAMUX0, EXAMPLE_CHANNEL, EXAMPLE_DMA_SOURCE); DMAMUX_EnableChannel(DMAMUX0, EXAMPLE_CHANNEL); }    Step 10: KSDK V2.0 software provides FlexIO I2S eDMA driver located at <fsl_flexio_i2s_edma.c> file, with below codes to initialize FlexIO I2S master DMA handler and to configure the sample rate & audio data format to be transferred: FLEXIO_I2S_TransferTxCreateHandleEDMA(&base, &txHandle, callback, NULL, &dmaHandle); FLEXIO_I2S_TransferSetFormatEDMA(&base, &txHandle, &format, 48000000); Step 11: After above preparation, following action will start to transfer music data to WM8960 codec with below code. When the music data transfer finished, the callback function will be called to start next round data transferred. Then we could hear the sound with endless loop. static void callback(FLEXIO_I2S_Type *i2sBase, flexio_i2s_edma_handle_t *handle, status_t status, void *userData) {   // Initiate FlexIO I2S transfer again after previous transfer finished  FLEXIO_I2S_TransferSendEDMA(&base, &txHandle, &xfer); } About more detailed oobe demo software info, please check attached file. The default oobe demo located path is: C:\Freescale\SDK_2.0_MAPS-KS22\boards\mapsks22\user_apps\oobe
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