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LPC: Regarding to Internal Clock Calibration In MCU development, using the internal crystal oscillator as a clock source instead of the external crystal oscillator can save costs. But the clock frequency generated by the internal crystal oscillator is affected by temperature and MCU frequency more than external crystal oscillator. Many customers have questions about the internal clock accuracy, whether the internal clock can be used for USB transmission, and how to calibrate the internal clock. This article mainly explains this. 1. Calibrate internal clock by FREQTRIM Normally, we can only calibrate the internal clock by adjusting the FREQTRIM value. The internal clock frequency is affected by temperature, MCU frequency and other factors. The FRO control register can calibrate the internal clock, as follows:   The FREQTRIM register value ranges from 0 to 255, and each adjustment step is about 0.1% of the internal clock frequency. There is no precise formula to express the relationship between the FREQTRIM value and the FRO frequency. The ideal FREQTRIM value can only be determined by adjusting FREQTRIM in code and observing FRO output waveform with oscilloscope. Test and observation: The following is the test result. It shows how FRO frequency varies with FREQTRIM increasing from 0-255. Test result of first development board:     Test result of second development board:   The following two points can be seen from test results: - There is no linear relationship between the FRO clock frequency and the FREQTRIM register value, and there is no precise formula to express the relationship between them; - Even for chips of the same part number, the internal clock frequency changes are slightly different, with the FREQTRIM register value changing, but the trend is same. Therefore, there is no precise formula to guide internal clock frequency calibration. You can only adjust the FREQTRIM register value repeatedly, just like adjusting the focus of a projector. Use an oscilloscope to check the frequency of the internal clock pin to find the most suitable FREQTRIM register value. There is same solution for FRO clock frequency calibration about other LPC chips.   2. LPC51U68: Software calibration USB transmission when using internal clock source The Full Speed USB module of LPC51U68 has a unique FRO automatic calibration function, which automatically adjusts the FREQTRIM value to achieve FRO calibration by measuring the USB SOF bit. Once FRO is calibrated, the corresponding system clock and peripheral clock are calibrated. This solution is only applicable to LPC51U68, please refer to the user manual for other chips. The following is the FRO clock accuracy described in LPC51U68 User Manual, which is ± 1%:   For Full Speed USB, the USB data transmission accuracy requirement is ±0.25%, and the FRO clock accuracy is not satisfied. NXP provides a software solution to calibrate FRO by measuring the first packet of frame (SOF), which can meet the transmission accuracy in Full Speed mode.   The solution download link is as follows: https://www.nxp.com/docs/en/application-note/TN00035.zip  
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After LPC54XXX enter ISP mode, there are two methods to upgrade the application through UART/I2C/SPI/USB. One method is to change the ISP pin state when power on, and the other method is to reinvoke ISP Boot ROM in source code during code running. The first method does not require user to write any code, and the operation is simple, but the disadvantage is that it is not flexible and is not suitable for on-site operation; The second method is more flexible and is widely used in Secondary Bootloader applications developed by yourself, but it requires users to write their own code. In actual development, because the USB port of personal computer is easy to use, the method of using the USB port for application upgrade is becoming more and more popular. Unfortunately, we currently do not have instructions for upgrading the application by the USB port in ISP mode. So we write this article to share the method here.   There are two methods to enter ISP mode: Method 1: Enter ISP mode to upgrade the application during power on On the hardware side, configure the ISP0~2 pins before power-on or reset, and the MCU enters ISP mode to upgrade the application. The pin configuration method is as follows: Figure 1.   Method 2: Activate Reinvoke ISP in source code to upgrade the application In ISP mode, the application is upgraded through UART/I2C/SPI/USB. This article focuses on the USB method. Here for USB, Both USB0 (Full Speed) and USB1 (High Speed) of LPC54XXX can be used for application upgrade. There are two USB upgrade modes: DFU (Device Firmware Updata) and MSC (Mass Storage Device Class), as follows: Figure 2.   Select the application upgrade mode by modifying byte 0 and byte 1 of the ISP parameter array. The key code is as follows Figure 3.   There are 3 key point we need to pay attention in Figure 3: -When isp_mode[0] is configured as 0xAA, it is DFU mode, otherwise it is MSC mode (for example, isp_mode[0] is configured as 0xFF). -When isp_mode[1] is configured as 8, USB FS is used, and when it is configured as 9, USB HS is used. -Enter the ISP mode through the Chip_IAP_ReinvokeISP function. 2.1 Use DFU for application upgrade Tool preperation: To work with DFU, dfu-util tool is needed to use DFU to upgrade the application, you can download the DFU tool on the DFU official website. The link is as follows: http://dfu-util.sourceforge.net/ NXP also includes the dfu-util tool in LPCScrypt. If you have downloaded LPCScrypt, you can use it directly in the bin directory.   DFU update application Steps: Take LPC54628 as an example, ISP is configured as DUF mode, and USB1 is used to upgrade the application. Modify the relevant code in Figure 3, as follows: isp_mode[0] = 0xAA; isp_mode[1] = SL_USBHS; Build and download the application to the MCU, power on again, and connect USB1 to the computer. Here Enter the dfu-util tool directory and copy the .bin file to the current directory. Use the command: ./dfu-util -l   Find the DFU devices. Use the command: ./dfu-util -D .\lpcxpresso54628_gpio_led_output.bin -a 0 Download the lpcxpresso54628_gpio_led_output.bin file to the device with alt number 0. Alt0 is "FLASH", alt1 is "RAM", and the specific operations are as follows:   Figure 4.   After downloading the application successfully, reset the MCU and observe the blinking phenomenon of the LED on the development board.   2.2 Use MSC for application upgrade Take LPC54628 as an example, ISP is configured as MSC mode, and USB1 is used to upgrade the application. Modify the relevant code in Figure 3, as follows: isp_mode[0] = 0xFF; isp_mode[1] = SL_USBHS; Build and download the application to the MCU, power on again, and connect USB1 to the computer. You will found another disk in my computer, as follows: Figure 5.   Then do the following to update firmware: -Remove the original firmware.bin in the CRP DISABLD disk. -Rename the application (for example, lpcxpresso54628_gpio_led_output.bin) to firmware.bin. -Copy the application firmware.bin to the CRP DISABLD disk. -Reset the MCU, if the LED is observed blinking, it proves that the application has been successfully upgraded. Note: The application must be renamed, and the rename cannot be performed in the CRP DISABLD disk.   Demo project: lpcxpresso54628_flashiap.zip Application upgrade file:lpcxpresso54628_gpio_led_output.bin (generated by SDK demo code)
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LPC55xx系列的MCUXpresso SDK使用FLASH API来实现FLASH驱动。 一些用户在执行如下FLASH写操作时可能会遇到如下的问题: status = FLASH_Program(&flashInstance, destAdrss, (uint8_t *)s_bufferFF, 8);       执行完上述代码后,对应的地址区间数据没有变化,写入失败,返回错误代码101,如下图所示, 错误代码101看上去有点陌生,这在之前的LPC产品中并不常见,我们在用户手册中搜索 FLASH driver status code ,可以查找到错误代码101为FLASH 对齐操作错误(Alignment Error)。   对齐操作错误是什么?我们先来看程序是如何对 FLASH_Program 函数进行定义的。 FLASH 写函数定义如下: status_t FLASH_Program(flash_config_t *config, uint32_t start, uint32_t *src, uint32_t lengthInBytes); 新用户经常会忽略掉用户手册中对于这个 API 的介绍“ the required start and the lengthInBytes must be page size aligned ”,这句话的意思是在执行 FLASH_Program 函数时,写入的起始地址和数据长度必须 512 字节对齐,所以如果我们把代码 status = FLASH_Program(&flashInstance, destAdrss, (uint8_t *)s_bufferFF, 8); 更正为 status = FLASH_Program(&flashInstance, destAdrss, (uint8_t *)s_bufferFF, 512); FLASH_Program 函数就可以运行成功。   请注意 :在 2.6.x 版本的 SDK 中, FLASH_Program 函数的注释将参数的起始地址和数据长度错误的表述为字对齐, 2.7.0 版本的 SDK 已经对注释进行了修正。即使你想要操作一个字节, lengthInBytes 也是512字节对齐。   最后 :建议用户在遇到关于 FLASH API 操作失败 的相关问题,一定要查看用户手册中的 FLASH 驱动状态码,我们可以从 UM11126 中的第九章节 FLASH API 部分找到它,如下图所示。  
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经常有客户在使用LPC55S69的过程中遇到读 Flash进入异常HardFault中断的现象。如果在Flash Mass Erase之后从未对Flash扇区进行过写操作,直接用指针通过AHB读Flash地址会导致程序跳入HardFault 中断而无法继续正常运行。 原因    刚出厂的 LPC55Sxx FLASH 处于全零的全擦除状态,没有设置 ECC 。当芯片通过 LinkServer 和 MCUXpresso IDE 建立连接时,先擦除要下载代码用到的扇区,再把代码下载到对应位置,并对相应存储区的 ECC 值同时进行更新。代码以外的区域仍然是无 ECC 设置的擦除状态。 当 LPC55Sxx 通过 AHB 总线直接读取 Flash 内存区域时(例如,mytemp = *(uint32_t*)0x4000)要对 Flash ECC 进行校验。这一指令对于读有效代码区是没有问题的, 因为这一区域的 ECC 在下载代码时早已设置好。但是一旦读取没有代码的扇区,由于没有检测到正确的 ECC ,导致 Flash 读取失败,并跳转到下图中的 HardFault_Handler() 异常中断:   我们在 Sector Erase 后通过 AHB 读取 Flash 内存内容,也会遇到同样的 HardFault 异常跳转,出问题的原因都是一样的。 解决方法 针对这一问题我们有如下两种解决方法: 先执行 Flash 写操作,再读取 Flash 与 Flash 擦除操作不同,执行 Flash 写操作后对应的 ECC 值也同步更新。这样, ECC 校验通过后,通过下面的代码就可以对 Flash 直接进行 AHB 读取。 volatile uint32_t mytemp; …… mytemp = *(uint32_t*)0x1000;//read memory content 0x1000 to mytemp 请注意: 0x1000 必须是一个已经写过的地址。 如果 Flash 的某个扇区处于被擦除的状态,我们只需要在通过 AHB 总线读取内存区域之前对该区域执行写操作,这样 ECC 校验位更新正确后,就可以正常读 Flash 。 Flash 的写操作可以参考 MCUXpresso SDK 自带的 flashiap 例程,函数 FLASH_Program 。   使用 Flash 控制指令读取 Flash 区内容 使用Flash控制指令进行读操作不会导致硬件错误(请参阅 UM11126 “Command listing (CMD)” 章节)。这是用户手册中推荐的读Flash正确打开方式。 请注意: CPU 只有在频率低于 100MHz 时,才能进行 Flash 操作(读,写,擦除,校验,等等),当 CPU 频率超过 100MHz 时是不能实现上述操作的。 目前,官方没有提供上用控制指令读取 Flash 内容的例程,因此需要您根据下面步骤创建自己的读 Flash 程序。 开发环境: IDE: MCUXpresso IDE v11.1.0 SDK MCUXpresso SDK v2.7.0 步骤: 在 MCUXpresso IDE 中导入一个基础例程,如 led_blinky 在下图所述选项中添加 iap 组件   选择 iap1, 点击 OK   点击完 OK 之后,fsl_iap_ffr.h, fsl_iap.c, fsl_iap.h文件将自动添加到工程中   在 source 文件夹中添加附件中的 memory.h 和 memory.c 文件   4) 使用 Flash 控制指令时,需要在源文件中添加memory.h, fsl_iap.h   5) 调用 memory 初始化和 memory 读取函数   6)调试,单步执行( step over )到memory_read(),查看结果  
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Recently I found some customer have a bit of problem when porting project from one MCU to another, so this article using simple steps demonstrate how to change MCU with MCUXpresso. There is also a video about the detail steps in attachment. Pay attention, as MCUXpresso User Guide says: All projects are associated with a particular MCU at creation time. The target MCU determines the project memory layout, startup code, LinkServer flash driver, libraries, supporting sources,launch configuration options etc. etc. so changing a project’s associated MCU should not be undertaken unless you have a total grasp of the consequence of this change. Therefore rather than changing a project’s associated MCU, it is strongly recommended that instead a new project is generated for the desired MCU and this new project is edited as required. However, on occasion it may be expedient to reset a project’s MCU (and associated SDK) and this can be achieved as follows. For example, changing lpc55s69 to lpc55s06, we need install SDKs for lpc55s69 and lpc55s06 before all the below steps. 1.- Change MCU & Package 1.1. – Change MCU Right click “MCU” under Project tree, choose “Edit MCU” Uncheck ”Preserve memory configuration”(it is checked by default)->choose LPC55S06->there is a warning, choose Yes. We can see the Memory details changed to lpc55s06, then click ”Apply and close”. 1.2. – Change Package 2.- Change Compiler Definitions In Properties view->Settings->MCU Compiler ->Preprocessor, change the definition for CPU LPC55S69JBD100 to LPC55S06JBD64 as below: 3.– Change/add SDK driver for LPC55s06 Selected project, then click ”Manage SDK components”, choose the drivers our application used, for example, clock, power, usart. Click “OK”, then click “Yes” to update. Delete LPC55S69 device related files: Add “system_LPC55S06.c” and “system_LPC55S06.h”: 4.- Change startup file. Delete LPC55s69 startup files, add “startup_lpc55s06.c”, we can find the startup file in any SDK demo. 5.- Change board related files. Refer to our own new board, change files under “board” folder, for example pins, uart number, here directly copy from SDK demo for LPCxpresso55s06 board. 6.- Test the project  function with new board        
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Symptoms Some users cannot access MCU peripherals normally by add peripheral initialization code to MCUXpresso SDK TrusZone demo. For example, when add Flash operation code in the security world, the program code jumps to HardFault_Handler after running to function FLASH_INIT(), and the execution of Flash erase and Flash program operations fails also, as follows: Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Diagnosis As shown in figure 2 and figure 3, when the program code runs to code return VERSION_FLASH_API_TREE->flash_init(config), it automatically jumps to HardFault_Handler. VERSION_FLASH_API_TREE is located in the 0x1301fe00 address of the boot rom, the flash erase api is located in address 0x1300413bU, and the flash program api is located in address 0x1300419dU (the corresponding program code is shown in figure 6). All above addresses are not security privilege. Figure 6        From the 7.5.3.1.2 TrustZone preset data chapter in user manual, after enabling the TrustZone configuration, users must configure the security level of the entire ROM address space to security priority (S-Priv) in order to ensure that the ROM area can be accessed normally by the security area code. Figure 7 Solution Below is the steps of how to resolve this issue. The demo is based on MCUXpresso SDK demo hello_world_s. Step 1 : firstly we use the TEE tool integrated with MCUXpresso IDE to configure the security level of the Boot ROM address area, as shown in Figure 8, double-click the Boot-ROM area in the Memory attribution map window, and configure the sector’s security level in the corresponding Security access configuration window on the left. Figure 8 Step 2: Second, when operating Flash or other peripherals in the security area, users must configure the security level of correlative peripherals to the security priority(S-Priv).        When operating flash in the SDK TrustZone demo, the MCU uses two slave peripherals, so users must configure their security level to S-Priv. Figure 9 Please Note: From the usermanual, when operating flash, the system clock frequency cannot exceed 100MHZ. When using the function of FLASH_Program(), because the s_buffer is 512-byte aligned, the BUFFER_LEN is equal to 512/N.   The above configuration of the security level can be configured through the TEE tool integrated the MCUXpresso IDE. After completing configuration, click Update Code to automatically update the relevant code in the tzm_config.c file, as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10 The updated code is shown in Figure 11 below. It is obvious that the security level settings of boot rom memory and peripheral (FLASH, SYSCTRL) have changed. If you do not use the TEE tool, you can also manually modify tzm_config.c to configure the same security options. Figure 11 Third-party tools users: Because many users are accustomed to using third-party development tools such as Keil or IAR, but these IDEs do not integrate the TEE tool, users need to check the configuration requirements of related registers in user manual when modifying the security level of related areas and peripherals in TrusZone, and update the associated code in the tzm_config.c file (similar to Figure 11) to complete the related configuration. In addition, NXP released the MCUXpresso Config Tools, which integrates MCU-related configuration functions. Users can download and install this tool to perform configurations and update codes. The download link is as follows: https://www.nxp.com/design/software/development-software/mcuxpresso-software-and tools/mcuxpresso-config-tools-pins-clocks-peripherals:MCUXpresso-Config-Tools   Introduction of MCUXpresso Config Tools After the tool is installed, open the configuration tool, select Create a new configuration based on an SDK example or hello world project, click Next, as shown in Figure 12: Figure 12   In Start Development window, follow below steps to generate project. As shown in Figure 13. Figure 13 After the tzm_config.c file is updated, copy or import it to the corresponding folder of KEIL or IAR third-party development tools, and it can be used normally.          
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Symptoms Many LPC55 users experienced connection failure when using ISP USB0 for firmware update. In practice, we don’t suggest user updating firmware via ISP USB0 for LPC55(S)6x/ 2x,LPC55(S)1x/0x parts. Diagnosis LPC55 USB0 is Full Speed USB port. The default setting of CMPA turns off the USB0 port. Some users may reconfigure CMPA to enable ISP USB0 in order to use ISP USB0 BOOT, but this is not recommended in practice. LPC55 ISP USB0 uses internal FRO as clock source. According to LPC55 data sheet, the FRO accuracy is only +-2%, while the FS USB data rate tolerance specification is +-2500ppm(+-0.25%). Obviously, the LPC55 FRO spec can’t meet the USB0 clock accuracy requirement. See below extraction from NXP manuals. Fig 1. The accuracy of FRO ( Extracted from LPC55S69 Datasheet )   Fig 2. The accuracy requirement of USB FS( Extracted from TN00063 )   Some users may wonder why USB0 can use internal FRO as clock source in the user application?  Whenever internal clock source FRO is used as USB0 clock source, we must calibrate FRO in source code for communication. That’s to say, trim FRO to an accurate frequency. We can see FRO trim in many MCUXPressoSDK USB demos. When using FRO as the USB0 clock source, in order to ensure the USB0 clock accuracy, we must use the USB0 SOF frame synchronization to calibrate the FRO in order to ensure the accuracy of FS USB clock source (reference design of TN00063, TN00063-LPC5500 Crystal-less USB Solution). Unfortunately, the BOOT ROM of LPC55 does not support USB SOF calibrating FRO. As a result, even if we enable ISP USB0, the FRO clock drift can still cause USB0 communication failure under non-room temperature conditions. Solution Since ISP USB0 is not recommended for firmware update, the user manual no longer announces the enablement bit of ISP USB0 in CMPA. If you need to use USB0 for firmware update, we recommend using ISP USB1 (High Speed USB), because USB1 uses accurate external clock source which can ensure the ISP USB1 working stable. In addition, the communication protocol of ISPUSB complies with BLHOST specification. For details, see:  blhost User's Guide - NXP  
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Some customers want to generate CRC checksum during compile project, while the GUN tool chain in MCUXpresso IDE doesn’t include CRC checksum calculation function, so we need  the help of CRC checksum tools. In this article, use SRecord. About detail theoretical knowledge of SRecord, please refer to https://mcuoneclipse.com/2015/04/26/crc-checksum-generation-with-srecord-tools-for-gnu-and-eclipse/ In this thread, mainly describe the steps about how to generate CRC checksum with MCUXpresso IDE post-build, through a hands on.   Environment: LPC54S018 chip MCUXpresso IDE SRecord tool ( http://srecord.sourceforge.net/ )   Purpose: Generate and place CRC checksum to 0x10000170 of LPC54s018 after compile project. In image header for LPC540xx devices, the offset 0x10 is crc_value, in LPC54s018 , the address is 0x10000170. so we need save CRC checksum value in  this  place.   Steps: Import SDK demo “led_blinky” into MCUXpresso IDE (Just use this demo to demonstrate).   Enable Compute CRC, because there is one bit in Image header for LPC540xx, Just add “ADD_CRC” or “ADD_CRC =1”, build project.     Can check from S19 file: When choose no CRC computation (no defined “ ADD_CRC “ symbol), the data in address 0x0164 bit0 is 1,   When choose compute CRC, the data in address 0x0164 bit0 is 0,        Download SRecord from http://srecord.sourceforge.net/ After download, srec_cat.exe is the main program we used. Place srec_cat.exe utility in a common directory (to reuse it even if you change the project or even the MCUXpresso IDE version). Be sure you add that “common directory” in the PATH environment variable, then be sure the eclipse was restarted to “see” the PATH content.   Create command file crc_add.txt, and place it under" Debug" folder of project. (About detail commands, please refer to SRecord Reference Manual.) # srec_cat command file to add the CRC and produce application file to be flashed # Usage: srec_cat @filename #first: create CRC checksum lpcxpresso54s018m_led_blinky.srec # input file -fill 0xFF 0x10000180 0x10010000 # fill code area with 0xff -crop 0x10000180 0x10010000 # just keep code area for CRC calculation below (CRC will be at 0x1FFFE..0x1FFFF) -CRC16_Big_Endian 0x10000170 -CCITT # calculate big endian CCITT CRC16 at given address. -crop 0x10000170 0x10000172 # keep the CRC itself #second: add application file lpcxpresso54s018m_led_blinky.srec # input file -fill 0xFF 0x10000180 0x10010000 # fill code area with 0xff -crop 0x10000000 0x10000170 0x10000172 0x10010000 #keep all except CRC #finally, produce the output file -Output # produce output lpcxpresso54s018m_led_blinky_crc.srec   Add post-build command to create srecord file with CRC checksum. arm-none-eabi-objcopy -v -O srec "${BuildArtifactFileName}" "${BuildArtifactFileBaseName}.srec" & srec_cat.exe @CRC_add.txt   7 ) Build project, the .srec with CRC checksum file will under Debug folder:         Pay attention: For the format of image header of LPC540xx devices, we need enable compute CRC and put the CRC value in the specific address. while for other chips, maybe do not need enable, and also can place it in your own address.   Reference: https://mcuoneclipse.com/2015/04/26/crc-checksum-generation-with-srecord-tools-for-gnu-and-eclipse/        
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There are two ways to program LPC chips using Flash Magic, ISP mode and  Single Wire Debug (SWD) mode. ISP mode support COM port, USB, CAN and Ethernet. SWD support LINK2(LPC1800/lpc4300) bridge and LPC11u35 bridge. This article uses four demonstrations to show these programming methods.   1. ISP mode   1.1 UART ISP Mode Demonstration   1.2 USB ISP Mode Demonstration 2. Single Wire Debug(SWD) Mode   2.1 SWD over Link2 Bridge     2.1.1 Introduction     2.1.2 Demonstration  2.2 SWD over LPC11U35    2.2.1 Introduction    2.2.2 Demonstration    2.2.3 Recover board   Download Flash Magic tool from: https://www.flashmagictool.com/ Pay attention use the new version Flash Magic v13.10 or later.   About detail steps please refer to attachment. Thanks!
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This document describes the different source clocks and the main modules that manage which clock source is used to derive the system clocks that exists on  LPC’s devices. It’s important to know the different clock sources available on our devices, modifying the default clock configuration may have different purposes since increasing the processor performance, achieving specific baud rates for serial communications, power saving, or simply getting a known base reference for a clock timer. The hardware used for this document is the following: LPC: LPCXpresso55S69 Keep in mind that the described hardware and management clock modules in this document are a general overview of the different platforms and the devices listed above are used as a reference example, some terms and hardware modules functionality may vary between devices of the same platform. For more detailed information about the device hardware modules, please refer to your specific device Reference Manual. LPC platforms The System Control Block (SYSCON) facilitates the clock generation in the LPC platforms, many clocking variations are possible and the maximum clock frequency for an LPC55S6x platform is @150MHz. For example, the LPC55S69 device supports 2 external and 3 internal clock sources. ·     External Clock Sources    Crystal oscillator with an operating frequency of 1 MHz to 32   MHz.    RTC Crystal oscillator with 32.768 kHz operating frequency.   ·    Internal Clock Sources Internal Free Running Oscillator (FRO).   This oscillator provides a selectable 96 MHz output, and a 12 MHz output (divided down from the selected higher frequency) that can be used as a system clock. These 96MHz and 12MHz output frequencies come from a Free Running Oscillator of 192MHz. The 12MHz output provides the default clock at reset and provides a clean system clock shortly after the supply pins reach operating voltage. Note that the 96MHz clock can only be used for a USB device and is not reliable for USB host timing requirements of the data signaling rate.   32 kHz Internal Free Running Oscillator FRO. The FRO is trimmed to +/- 2% accuracy over the entire voltage and temperature range. This FRO can be enabled in several power-down modes such as Deep-Sleep mode, Power-Down mode, and Deep power-down mode, also is used as a clock source for the 32-bit Real-time clock (RTC).   Internal low power oscillator (FRO 1 MHz). The accuracy of this clock is limited to +/- 15% over temperature, voltage, and silicon processing variations after trimming made during assembly. This FRO can be enabled in Deep-Sleep mode, used as a clock source for the PLL0 & PLL1, and for the WWDT(Windowed Watchdog Timer). The LPC55S69 can achieve up to 150MHz but the clock sources are slower than the final System Clock frequency (@150MHz), inside the SYSCON block two Phase Loop Locked (PLL0 & PLL1) allow CPU operation up to the maximum CPU rate without the need for a high-frequency external clock. These PLLs can run from the Internal FRO @12 MHz, the external oscillator, internal FRO @1 MHz, or the 32.768 kHz RTC oscillator. These multiple source clocks fit with the required PLL frequency thanks to the wide input frequency range of 2kHz to 150   MHz.   The PLLs can be enabled or disabled by software. The following diagram shows a high-level description of the possible internal and external clock sources, the interaction with the SYSCON block, and the PLL modules.     Figure   1 . General SYSCON diagram   SYSCON manages the clock sources that will be used for the main clock, system clock, and peripherals. A clock source is selected and depending on the application to develop the PLL modules are used and configured to perform the desired clock frequency. Also, the SYSCON module has several clock multiplexors for each peripheral of the board   i.e ( Systick ,   FullSpeed -USB,   CTimer ), so each peripheral can select its source clock regardless of the clock source selection of other peripherals. For example, the following figure shows these described multiplexers and all the possible clock sources that can be used at the specific module.   Figure  2 . Source clock selection for peripherals   For more detailed information, refer to “Chapter 4. System Control (SYSCON)” from the   LPC55S6x User Manual.  Example:   Enabling/Disabling PLLs The Clock tools available in MCUXpresso IDE, allows you to understand and configure the clock source for the peripherals in the platform. The following diagram shows the default PLL mode configured @150MHz, the yellow path shows all the internal modules involved in the clock configuration. Figure  3 . Default PLL mode @150MHz at Reset of LPC55S69   For example, you can use the Clock tools to configure the clock source of the PLL to use the   clk_in   coming from the internal 32MHz crystal oscillator, the PLL is configured in bypass mode, therefore the PLL gets inactive resulting in power saving. Figure  4 . Bypass of the PLL For more detailed information about PLL configuration, refer to “Chapter 4.6.6. PLL0 and PLL1 functional description” from the   LPC55S6x User Manual.  Example:   The next steps describe how to select a clock source for a specific peripheral using Clock Tools. 1.1   Configure clock for specific peripheral T o configure a peripheral as shown in figure 17, Clock Tools is also useful to configure the clock source for the desired peripheral. For example, using the CTimer0 the available clock sources are the following: Main Clock PLL0 Clock FRO 96MHz Clock   FRO 1MHz Clock MCLK Clock   Oscillator 32KHz Clock No Clock(Inactive)                   Figure 5. CTimer0 Clock Source Selector Select CTIMERCLKSEL0 multiplexor and then switch to one of the mentioned clock sources, for example, the   main_clk (Main Clock @150MHz) the clock multiplexor gets active and the yellow path is highlighted as shown in the following image.     Figure  6 . CTimer0, Main Clock attached 1.2   Export clock configuration to the project After you complete the clock configuration, the Clock Tool will update the source code in   clock_config.c   and   clock_config.h , including all the clock functional groups that we created with the tool. This will include   the clock source for specific peripherals. In the previous example, we configured the CTimer0 to use the   main_clk ; this is translated to the following instruction in source code: “ CLOCK_AttachClk (kMAIN_CLK_to_CTIMER0);” inside the “BOARD_BootClockPLL150M();” function.                         Figure  7 . API called from   clock_config.c   file Note. Remember that before configuring any internal register of a peripheral, its clock source needs to be attached, otherwise, a hard fault occurs. References LPC55S6x/LPC55S2x/LPC552x User Manual Also visit RT's System Clocks Kinetis System Clocks
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Introduction Amazon Web Services (AWS) is the world’s most comprehensive and broadly adopted cloud platform, offering over 165 fully-featured services from data centers globally. Millions of customers —including the fastest-growing startups, largest enterprises, and leading government agencies—trust AWS to power their infrastructure, become more agile, and lower costs.This document will take you step-by-step in a simple approach to adding peripherals to your AWS IOT and Alexa skills project. This is in continuation of the demo established in the following link, it is important to have this completed before continuing with this guide: Connecting the LPC55S69 to Amazon Web Services  Prerequisites - LPC55S69-EVK - Mikroe WiFi 10 Click - AWS Account - Alexa Developer Account - MCUXpresso IDE 11.2 - LPC55S69 SDK 2.8.0 Modifying "AWS_REMOTE_CONTROL_WIFI" In this example I will be adding a single-ended ADC peripheral. 1. First, create a separate .c and .h files in my source folder to keep it organized.  2. Initialize your peripheral. This includes your global variables, pins, clocks, interrupt handlers and other necessary peripheral configurations yours may have.  In my new_peripherals.c file, I add the following 2.1 Definitions: 2.2 Global variables: 2.3 Interrupt handler: 2.4 Initialization function: 2.5 Read ADC Function: 3.  Create header file with the two functions that will be used to enable the ADC, make sure to include the "fsl_lpadc"drivers. 4.  Add the ADC pin with pin configuration tool.  4.1 In this example I use PIO0_23 for the ADC0 Channel 0, 5. Add ADC_Init function to the main. 6. Now let's go ahead and modify "remote_control.c". Here we need to build the JSON text that we want updating our Thing's shadow with the ADC value, add the read function, add the variable in the initial shadow document and the keyword for our DeltaJSON. 6.1 First create global variables for the actual state of the ADC interaction and the parsed state. 6.2 Add external function which will read the ADC value. 6.3 Shadows use   JSON shadow documents   to store and retrieve data. A shadow’s document contains a state property that describes these aspects of the device’s state: desired: Apps specify the desired states of device properties by updating the desired object. reported: Devices report their current state in the reported object. delta: AWS IoT reports differences between the desired and the reported state in the delta object. 6.4 I've added the initial ADC state with a hard-coded 0, so that I can verify my Thing's shadow is initialized with the new information. 6.5 In the "void processShadowDeltaJSON(char *json, uint32_t jsonLength)" function, we need to add the condition for the change in state of the ADC. This will helps us identify when the action to read the ADC is requested. 6.6 Finally in the "prvShadowMainTask" function, we will create the action based on the above request. We can add some PRINTFs so that we know that the action is requested and processed properly through the serial console. As you may see I only want to update the ADC value when it is requested. Meaning the value of the ADC's state or parsed state is important. We will clear it to zero after we read the ADC and only update the value when it is 1. As opposed to the LEDState and parsedLEDState, where the value is important since it points to which color LED will be on/off. That's it you can build and run the project! Now we can add the Alexa Skill and the functionality in the AWS Lambda. MODIFYING AWS LAMBDA Since the lambda will be the connection between our LPCXpresso board and the Alexa Skill, we need to add the handler for  our new ADC requests. 1.  In this example we add the third request type which is the ADC event and the name of the callback function we will use.  2. The callback function "manage_ADC_request" will contain the attributes for reading and updating the shadow, this will consequently cause the change in delta shadow so our LPC55S69 will read the ADC pin. In addition, the utterances sent to the Alexa skill as well as how we want Alexa to respond will also be defined here.  As you may observe our function builds the JSON payload to update the shadow with a "1" when it is called and ignores the led and accelerometer values. We delay for 2.5 seconds to allow the LPC to read and write the ADC value in the necessary field and send the updated shadow. Then the Lambda will read the shadow and create the return message.  With this we construct the answer for Alexa. MODIFYING ALEXA SKILLS 1.  First create a custom 'intent'. Here is the general definition of what the utterances will be to request an action from the AWS Thing.    1.1 The name needs to match the name used for the event in the Lambda. In this example it is ADC_INTENT 2. Before we create the utterances, let's create the slot types. This is the list of all the words possible that may come to mind that a user might say to request a reading from the ADC.  2.1 The name of the slot type is not crucial, however please note it as we will need it later.  2.2 Add slot values. You can add as many as you think are necessary. For recommendations on custom slot values please check, best practices for sample utterances. 2.3 Go back to the general view of the ADC_INTENT, scroll down and we will add how the slot will be included in the utterances. In this example I use adc_name, however the name here is also not crucial. Select the slot type list we created earlier. 2.4 Now scroll back up and lets begin adding the sample utterances. This can be any command that you believe a user can say to invoke this action. You do not need to include the wake word here. In brackets add the name of your intent slot, in this case it is {adc_name}. That's it! You can save and rebuild the model. You are now ready to test it. You can do so through the 'Test' tab on the developer's console. In addition if you have an Alexa device or the SLN-ALEXA-IOT, you can test it by speaking with Alexa directly. In your LPCXpresso55S69 you can connect the 3.3V or the 0V to the ADC pin so you can see how the value is returned every request. 
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T his article introduces how to create a custom board MCUXpresso SDK and how to use it, mainly includes three parts: Part1: Generating a Board Support Configuration (.mex) Part2: Create a Custom Board SDK Using the Board SDK Wizard Part3. Using the Custom SDK to Create a New Project   Requirements: MCUXpresso IDE v11.1.1, MCUXpresso SDK for LPC845, LPC845-BRK board. This method works for all NXP mcu which support by MCUXpresso SDK. About detail steps, please refer to attachment. Thanks!
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The following document contains a list of documents, questions and discussions that are relevant in the community based on the amount of views they are receiving each month. If you are having a problem, doubt or getting started in LPC or MCUXpresso you should check the following links to see if your doubt have been already solved in the following documents and discussions. MCUXpresso MCUXpresso Supported Devices Table  FAQ: MCUXpresso Software and Tools  How to create a new LPC project using LPCOpen and MCUXpresso IDE  Introducing MCUXpresso SDK v.2 for LPC54xxx Series  Generating a downloadable MCUXpresso SDK v.2 package  Using the MCUXpresso Pins Tool   MCUXpresso Config Tools is now available!   LPC55xx Multicore Applications with MCUXpresso IDE  LPC information LPC5460x MCU Family Overview  USB with NXP Microcontrollers LWIP memory requirements  LPC800 Four-Part Webinar Series!  The LPC804 Programmable Logic Unit (PLU)   LPC84x Technical Training - Now Available Guides and Examples Flashing and Installing the new firmware and drivers for LPC11U35 debug probes  Enabling debug output  USB FLASH download, programming, and security tool (DFUSec)  DMA Ping-Pong application  Getting start with LPCXpresso54608 & emWin Graphics;  Capacitive Touch example using the LPC845 Breakout Board  OLED Display Application Example using LPC845 Breakout Board and SPI  Mixed-Signal Logic Analyzer & Oscilloscope (Lab Tool) Solution  LPC FAQ How to calculate the value of crystal load capacitors? Can I send a message with X/Y/Z bits in the ID?  What is the difference between error active and error passive? What is the sample point for?  How can I verify the configured CAN bitrate, using an oscilloscope? 
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How to start with SDK v.2.0 for LPC5411x using LPCXpresso IDE This document gives an overview of SDK v.2.0 for LPC5411x and also describes the steps required to build, run, and debug an example application provided in the SDK using LPCXpresso IDE. The steps described in the document are for the LPCXpresso54114 board (OM13089).   SDK for LPC5411x Derivatives Overview   The Software Development Kit (SDK) provides comprehensive software support for Microcontrollers. The SDK includes a flexible set of peripheral drivers designed to speed up and simplify development of embedded applications. Along with the peripheral drivers, the SDK provides an extensive and rich set of example applications covering everything from basic peripheral use case examples to full demo applications. The SDK also contains RTOS kernels and various other middleware to support rapid development on devices. SDK board support provides example applications for development and evaluation boards. Board support packages are found inside of the top level boards folder, and each supported board has its own folder (a SDK package can support multiple boards). Within each <board_name> folder there are various sub-folders to classify the type of examples they contain. These include (but are not limited to): demo_apps: Full-featured applications intended to highlight key functionality and use cases of the target MCU. These applications typically use multiple MCU peripherals and may leverage stacks and middleware. driver_examples: Simple applications intended to concisely illustrate how to use the SDK’s peripheral drivers for a single use case. These applications typically only use a single peripheral, but there are cases where multiple are used (for example, ADC conversion using DMA). rtos_examples: Basic FreeRTOS examples showcasing the use of various RTOS objects (semaphores, queues, and so on) and interfacing with the SDK’s RTOS drivers multicore_examples: Applications for both cores showing the usage of multicore software components and the interaction between cores.   Build, run and debug a SDK example   This section describes the steps required to configure LPCXpresso IDE to build, run, and debug an example application. The hello_world demo application targeted for the LPCXpresso54114 is used as an example, though these steps can be applied to any example application in the SDK.   1. Download and install the latest LPCXpresso version from the next link: http://www.nxp.com/products/software-and-tools/software-development-tools/software-tools/lpc-microcontroller-utilities/lpcxpresso-ide-v8.2.2:LPCXPRESSO 2. Follow the steps describe here to download the Software Development Kit (SDK) v2.0 for LPCXpresso54114: Generating a downloadable MCUXpresso SDK v.2 package  3. Select "File -> Import" from the LPCXpresso IDE menu. In the window that appears, expand the "General" folder and select "Existing Projects into Workspace". Then, click the "Next" button.       4. Click the "Browse" button next to the "Import from file:" option, and point to the example application project, which can be found using this path: <install_dir>/boards/<board_name>/<example_type>/<application_name>/lpcx/cm4 For this example, the specific location is: <install_dir_SDK_2.0_LPCXpresso54114>\boards\lpcxpresso54114\demo_apps\hello_world\lpcx\cm4 Then Click the "Finish" button. 5. There are two project configurations (build targets) supported for each SDK project: Debug – Compiler optimization is set to low, and debug information is generated for the executable. This target should be selected for development and debug. Release – Compiler optimization is set to high, and debug information is not generated. This target should be selected for final application deployment. So it is necessary to choose the appropriate build target. For this example, select the "Debug" target.   6. Build the project using the hammer icon. 7. Connect the development platform to your PC via USB cable between the Link2 USB connector (named Link for some boards) and the PC USB connector. If connecting for the first time, allow some seconds for the devices to enumerate.   8. In the Windows operating system environment, open the terminal application on the PC and connect to the debug serial port number. For this example it is used Tera Term.   Configure the terminal with these settings: 115200 No parity 8 data bits 1 stop bit    9. In LPCXpresso IDE, click on “Debug Configurations”. In the Debug Configurations dialog box, select the debug configuration that corresponds to the hardware platform you’re using. In this example, select is the CMSIS-DAP option under C/C++ (NXP Semiconductors) MCU Application. 10. After selecting the debugger interface, click the "Debug" button to launch the debugger. 11. Additional dialog windows may appear to select LPC-INK2 CMSIS-DAP emulator and core in case of multicore derivatives. Select it and click the "OK" button. Then select the Cortex-M4. The application is downloaded to the target and automatically run to main():    12. Start the application by clicking the "Resume" button. The hello_world application is now running and a banner is displayed on the terminal. Enjoy!!   Related links: Introducing MCUXpresso SDK v.2 for LPC54xxx Series  Generating a downloadable MCUXpresso SDK v.2 package  MCUXpresso Config Tools is now available!  
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This document describes how to create a new LPC project using LPCOpen v2.xx, LPCXpresso v8.2.2 and LPC11U24 LPCXpresso board. In addition describes how to create 2 simple example codes. Blinking LED. Set the LED using a push bottom.  LPCOpen LPCOpen is an extensive collection of free software libraries (drivers and middleware) and example programs that enable developers to create multifunctional products based on LPC microcontrollers. After install LPCXpresso, the LPCOpen packages for supported board(s)/device(s) can be found at the path: <install_path>\lpcxpresso\Examples\LPCOpen > This directory contains a number of LPCOpen software bundles for use with the LPCXpresso IDE and a variety of development boards. Note that LPCOpen bundles are periodically updated, and additional bundles are released. Thus we would always recommend checking the LPCOpen pages to ensure that you are using the latest versions. This example was created using the LPC11U24 LPCXpresso board in this case the drivers selected is lpcopen_v2_00a_lpcxpresso_nxp_lpcxpresso_11u14.zip Importing libraries In order to create a new project, it is necessary to first import the LPCOpen Chip Library for the device used and optionally the LPCOpen Board Library Project. For do that it is necessary to follow these steps: 1. Click on Import project(s). 2. Select the examples archive file to import. In this case, the projects imported are contained within archives .zip.  3. For this example the LPC11U14 LPCXpresso board is selected. Click Open. Then click Next 4. Select only the LPCOpen Chip Library and LPCOpen Board Library Project. Click Finish. The same steps are required for any LPC device and board you are used. Creating a new LPC project.   The steps to create a new LPC project are described below: 1. In Quickstar Panel, click "New project"   2. Choose a wizard for your MCU. In this case LPC1100/LPC1200 -> LPC11Uxx -> LPCOpen-C Project This option will link the C project to LPCOpen. Then click Next.   3. Select the Project name and click Next.   4. Select the device used (LPC11U24 for this case) and click Next.   5. Select the LPCOpen Chip Library and LPCOpen Board Library, these projects must be present in the workspace.   6. You can set the following option as default clicking Next, then click Finish.   7. At this point, a new project was created. This project has a src (source) folder, the src folder contains: cr_startup_lpc11uxx.c: This is the LPC11Uxx Microcontroller Startup code for use with LPCXpresso IDE. crp.c: Source file to create CRP word expected by LPCXpresso IDE linker. sysinit.c: Common SystemInit function for LPC11xx chips. <name of project> my_first_example: This file contains the main code.     8. LPCXpresso creates a simple C project where it is reading the clock settings and update the system core clock variable, initialized the board and set the LED to the state of "On". 9. At this point you should be able to build and debug this project.   Writing my first project using LPCXpresso, LPCOpen and LPC11U24.   This section describes how to create 2 simple example codes. Blinking LED. Set the LED using a push bottom. The LPCOpen Chip Library (in this case lpc_chip_11uxx_lib) contains the drivers for some LPC peripherals. For these examples, we will use the GPIO Driver. The LPCOpen Board Library Project (in this case nxp_lpcxpresso_11u14_board_lib) contains files with software API functions that provide some simple abstracted functions used across multiple LPCOpen board examples. The board_api.h contains common board definitions that are shared across boards and devices. All of these functions do not need to be implemented for a specific board, but if they are implemented, they should use this API standard.   After create a new project using LPCXpresso and LPCOpen, it is created a simple C project where it is initialized the board and set the LED to the state of "On" using the Board_LED_Set function.   int main( void ) {   #if defined (__USE_LPCOPEN)     // Read clock settings and update SystemCoreClock variable     SystemCoreClockUpdate(); #if !defined(NO_BOARD_LIB)     // Set up and initialize all required blocks and     // functions related to the board hardware     Board_Init();     // Set the LED to the state of "On"     Board_LED_Set(0, true); #endif #endif       // TODO : insert code here       // Force the counter to be placed into memory     volatile static int i = 0 ;     // Enter an infinite loop, just incrementing a counter     while (1) {         i++ ;     }     return 0 ; }       a. Blinking LED. In board_api.h file there is an API function that toggle the LED void Board_LED_Toggle( uint8_t LEDNumber);   LEDNumber parameter is the LED number to change the state. The number of the LED for the LPCXpresso LPC11U24 is 0. It is easy to create a delay function using FOR loops. For example: void Delay ( unsigned int ms) {         volatile static int x,y;           while (ms)         {                 for (x=0; x<=140; x++)                 {                         y++;                 }                 ms--;         } } In order to have the LED blinking, it is necessary to call these functions in an infinite loop. while (1) {                 Board_LED_Toggle(0);                 Delay (10000);         } Complete code (Blinking LED). int main( void ) { #if defined (__USE_LPCOPEN)         // Read clock settings and update SystemCoreClock variable         SystemCoreClockUpdate(); #if !defined(NO_BOARD_LIB)         // Set up and initialize all required blocks and         // functions related to the board hardware         Board_Init();         // Set the LED to the state of "On"         Board_LED_Set(0, true); #endif #endif          while (1) {                 Board_LED_Toggle(0);                 Delay (10000);         }         return 0 ; }  void Delay ( unsigned int ms) {          volatile static int x,y;         while (ms)         {                 for (x=0; x<=140; x++)                 {                         y++;                 }                 ms--;         } }      b. Set the LED using a push bottom. For this example it is necessary to configure a pin as input.  The gpio_11xx_1.h file contains all the function definitions for the GPIO Driver. The example uses the pin 16 of port 0 to connect the push bottom. The function Chip_GPIO_SetPinDIRInput ( LPC_GPIO_T *pGPIO, uint8_t port, uint8_t pin) sets the GPIO direction for a single GPIO pin to an input. In order to configure the Port 0, pin 16 as input we can use this function: Chip_GPIO_SetPinDIRInput(LPC_GPIO, 0, 16); Then, it is necessary to check the status of this pin to turn-on/turn-off the LED. The function Chip_GPIO_GetPinState ( LPC_GPIO_T *pGPIO, uint8_t port, uint8_t pin) gets a GPIO pin state via the GPIO byte register. This function returns true if the GPIO is high, false if low. State_Input=  Chip_GPIO_GetPinState (LPC_GPIO, 0, 16);   Complete code (Set the LED using a push bottom). int main( void ) {         bool State_Input;   #if defined (__USE_LPCOPEN)     // Read clock settings and update SystemCoreClock variable     SystemCoreClockUpdate(); #if !defined(NO_BOARD_LIB)     // Set up and initialize all required blocks and     // functions related to the board hardware     Board_Init();     Chip_GPIO_SetPinDIRInput(LPC_GPIO, 0, 16);     // Set the LED to the state of "On"     Board_LED_Set(0, false);  #endif  #endif      while (1) {           State_Input=  Chip_GPIO_GetPinState (LPC_GPIO, 0, 16);              if (State_Input==0){                 Board_LED_Set(0, true);             }              else {                 Board_LED_Set(0, false);              }     }     return 0 ; }   I hope this helps!! Regards Soledad
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Hello community!   Attached is a document that explains how to build and run the LPCOpen Ethernet example projects, it also explains the needed board and PC connections and configurations. The steps described in the document were done using the LPC1769 MCU like the one in the LPCXpresso board for LPC1769 with CMSIS DAP probe, but the same principles are applicable to any LPC MCU. The steps described in this document are valid for the following versions of the software tools: o    LPCXpresso v8.1.4 o    LPCOpen v2.xx Boards o    LPCXpresso board for LPC1769 with CMSIS DAP probe o    EA LPCXpresso BaseBoard o    LPC-Link2 Contents 1. Overview and concepts    1.1    LPCOpen       1.1.1 Core driver library       1.1.2 Middleware       1.1.3 Examples       1.1.4 LPCOpen with an RTOS 2. Running the lwip_tcpecho and webserver demo applications    2.1 Downloading a LPCOpen package    2.3 Setting up the hardware       2.3.1 LPCXpresso board for LPC1769 with CMSIS DAP probe       2.3.2 EA LPCXpresso BaseBoard    2.2 Importing the LPCOpen examples    2.4 Building the demo applications    2.5 Running the demo applications       2.5.1 lwip_tcpecho_sa demo       2.5.2 webserver demo Appendix A - References I hope you can benefit from this post, if you have questions please let me know.   Best Regards! Carlos Mendoza
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Hello community!   Attached is a document that explains the steps to use LPCXpresso with the LPCOpen projects for your preferred device and platform. The steps described in the document were done using the LPC54102 MCU like the one in the LPCXpresso Board for the LPC54100 family of MCUs, but the same principles are applicable to any LPC MCU. The steps described in this document are valid for the following versions of the software tools: o    LPCXpresso v8.1.4 o    LPCOpen v3.xx Contents 1. Overview and concepts    1.1    LPCOpen       1.1.1 Core driver library       1.1.2 Middleware       1.1.3 Examples       1.1.4 Using LPCOpen with an RTOS 2. Running the demo applications    2.1 Downloading a LPCOpen package    2.2 Importing the LPCOpen examples    2.3 Building and debugging blinky project Appendix A - References I hope you can benefit from this post, if you have questions please let me know.   Best Regards! Carlos Mendoza
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