I checked your project. If you already have the ConsoleIO component, then there is no need to add other UART components. You can find a well explained and detailed tutorial in the next link:
Tutorial: Printf() with (and without) Processor Expert | MCU on Eclipse
That tutorial is for Freedom KL25 and using GCC tools, but procedure is the same for your K10 and Freescale build tools.
I looked again at your project and detected that you are missing some settings. You added a second Serial_LDD component, but there is already one when you add the ConsoleIO component. You just need to configure that one to your needs (UART0, PTB16, PTB17 and baud rate). This Serial_LDD is hidden below the ConsoleIO component. Check the next picture:
However, all this is explained in the tutorial from the link. Let me know if you still have problems.
Those configurations are correct. I checked your schematics and the connections seem to be correct, although I have never used that RS-232 voltage transceiver. Please check with the datasheet, unless that connection has worked before, is that so?
Your code seems ok to me, so another test would be to check your pin outputs with an oscilloscope.
Have you been able to run a debug session, or just flash the MCU with the Flash programmer?
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