Please note that the LSDK memory layout for TF-A boot flow explained in this topic is only applicable for LSDK 18.12 and newer releases. The following table shows the memory layout of various firmware stored in NOR/NAND/QSPI flash device or SD card on all QorIQ Reference Design Boards. When the board boots from NOR flash, the NOR bank from which the board boots is considered as the "current bank" and the other bank is considered as the "alternate bank". For example, if LS1043ARDB boots from NOR bank 4, to update an image on NOR bank 0, you need to use the "alternate bank" address range,0x64000000 - 0x64F00000. Firmware Definition MaxSize Flash Offset (QSPI/NAND flash) Absolute address (NOR bank 0 on LS1043ARDB, LS1021ATWR) Absolute address (NOR bank 4 LS1043ARDB, LS1021ATWR) Absolute address (NOR bank 0 on LS2088ARDB) Absolute address (NOR bank 4 on LS2088ARDB) SD Start Block No. RCW + PBI + BL2 (bl2.pbl) 1 MiB 0x00000000 0x60000000 0x64000000 0x580000000 0x584000000 0x00008 ATF FIP Image (fip.bin) BL31 + BL32 + BL33 4 MiB 0x00100000 0x60100000 0x64100000 0x580100000 0x584100000 0x00800 Boot firmware environment 1 MiB 0x00500000 0x60500000 0x64500000 0x580500000 0x584500000 0x02800 Secure boot headers 2 MiB 0x00600000 0x60600000 0x64600000 0x580600000 0x584600000 0x03000 Secure header or DDR PHY FW 512 KiB 0x00800000 0x60800000 0x64800000 0x580800000 0x584800000 0x04000 Fuse provisioning header 512 KiB 0x00880000 0x60880000 0x64880000 0x580880000 0x584880000 0x04400 DPAA1 FMAN ucode 256 KiB 0x00900000 0x60900000 0x64900000 0x580900000 0x584900000 0x04800 QE/uQE firmware 256 KiB 0x00940000 0x60940000 0x64940000 0x580940000 0x584940000 0x04A00 Ethernet PHY firmware 256 KiB 0x00980000 0x60980000 0x64980000 0x580980000 0x584980000 0x04C00 Script for flashing image 256 KiB 0x009C0000 0x609C0000 0x649C0000 0x5809C0000 0x5849C0000 0x04E00 DPAA2-MC or PFE firmware 3 MiB 0x00A00000 0x60A00000 0x64A00000 0x580A00000 0x584A00000 0x05000 DPAA2 DPL 1 MiB 0x00D00000 0x60D00000 0x64D00000 0x580D00000 0x584D00000 0x06800 DPAA2 DPC 1 MiB 0x00E00000 0x60E00000 0x64E00000 0x580E00000 0x584E00000 0x07000 Device tree(needed by uefi) 1 MiB 0x00F00000 0x60F00000 0x64F00000 0x580F00000 0x584F00000 0x07800 Kernel lsdk_linux.itb 16 MiB 0x01000000 NA NA NA NA 0x08000 Ramdisk rfs 32 MiB 0x02000000 NA NA NA NA 0x10000 The following figures highlight the changes in the flash layout for previous boot flow (with PPA) and flash layout for TF-A boot flow. Flash layout for previous boot flow (with PPA) Changed flash layout for TF-A boot flow
Follow these steps to update the composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash. cpld reset boots the board from QSPI NOR flash0 and cpld reset altbank boots the board from QSPI NOR flash1. sf probe 0:1 means that the alternate bank will be written to. So, if the board boots from QSPI NOR flash0 and sf probe 0:1 is entered at the U-Boot prompt, the commands that follow will program QSPI NOR flash1. Obtaining composite firmware image LSDK includes pre-built firmware images for QSPI NOR flash. The LSDK composite firmware includes RCW+PBI, U-Boot/UEFI, PPA, boot loader environment variables, DPAA1 FMan ucode, QE/uQE firmware, Ethernet PHY firmware, device tree, and lsdk_linux_<arch>.itb images. Refer Flash layout for new boot flow with TF-A for the complete flash memory layout of the images. On a Linux host machine, download composite firmware image for QSPI boot from nxp.com. $ wget http://www.nxp.com/lgfiles/sdk/lsdk<LSDK version>/firmware_<RDB_name>_uboot_qspiboot.img For example: $ wget http://www.nxp.com/lgfiles/sdk/lsdk1812/firmware_ls1046ardb_uboot_qspiboot.img Flashing composite firmware images to QSPI NOR flash Composite firmware image can be loaded to LS1046ARDB from a TFTP server or from a mass storage device (SD, USB, or SATA). Option 1: Load image from the TFTP server Boot LS1046RDB from QSPI NOR flash. Ensure that the switches are set to boot the board from QSPI NOR flash. For booting from QSPI flash, SW5[1:8] = 00100010 Boot from QSPI NOR flash0: => cpld reset In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 0 Set up Ethernet connection When board boots up, U-Boot prints a list of enabled Ethernet interfaces. FM1@DTSEC3 [PRIME], FM1@DTSEC4, FM1@DTSEC5, FM1@DTSEC6, FM1@TGEC1, FM1@TGEC2 Set server IP to the IP of the host machine on which you have configured the TFTP server. => setenv serverip <ipaddress1> Set ethact and ethprime as the Ethernet interface connected to the TFTP server. Refer LS1046ARDB Ethernet port mapping for the mapping of Ethernet port names appearing on the chassis front panel with the port names in U-Boot and Linux. => setenv ethprime <name of interface connected to TFTP server> For example: => setenv ethprime FM1@DTSEC4 => setenv ethact <name of interface connected to TFTP server> For example: => setenv ethact FM1@DTSEC4 Set IP address of the board. You can set a static IP address or, if the board can connect to a dhcp server, you can use the dhcp command. Static IP address assignment: => setenv ipaddr <ipaddress2> => setenv netmask <subnet mask> Dynamic IP address assignment: => dhcp Save the settings. => saveenv Check the connection between the board and the TFTP server. => ping $serverip Using FM1@DTSEC4 device host 192.168.1.1 is alive Load composite firmware image from the TFTP server Program QSPI NOR flash1: => sf probe 0:1 Flash composite firmware image: => tftp a0000000 firmware_ls1046ardb_uboot_qspiboot.img => print filesize filesize=2351db0 Program composite firmware image to QSPI NOR flash: => sf erase 0x0 +$filesize && sf write 0xa0000000 0x0 $filesize Address 0x0 is the location of the composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash. Refer Flash layout for new boot flow with TF-A for the complete flash memory layout. Boot from QSPI NOR flash1: => cpld reset altbank In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 4 Ensure that SD card, USB flash drive, or SCSI hard disk installed with LSDK Ubuntu distribution is plugged into the board to boot the board to Ubuntu. If U-Boot does not find LSDK on a mass storage device, it will boot TinyDistro from lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb stored in QSPI NOR flash. Option 2: Load image from partition on mass storage device (SD, USB, or SATA) Boot LS1046RDB from QSPI NOR flash. Ensure that the switches are set to boot the board from QSPI NOR flash. For booting from QSPI flash, SW5[1:8] = 00100010 Boot from QSPI NOR flash0: => cpld reset In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 0 Select mass storage device to use. => mmc rescan => mmc info Or => usb start
=> usb info Or => scsi scan => scsi info Optional – List files on storage device => ls mmc <device:partition> For example: => ls mmc 0:2 Or => ls usb <device:partition> For example: => ls usb 0:1 Or => ls scsi <device:partition> For example: => ls scsi 0:2 Program QSPI NOR flash1: => sf probe 0:1 Load composite firmware image from the storage device => load mmc 0:2 a0000000 <image name> => print filesize For example: => load mmc 0:2 a0000000 firmware_ls1046ardb_uboot_qspiboot.img => print filesize filesize=2351db0 Or => load usb 0:2 a0000000 <image name> => print filesize Or => load scsi 0:2 a0000000 <image name> => print filesize If the ls command fails to run, check that U-Boot in QSPI NOR flash0 supports the command by typing ls at the U-Boot prompt: => ls
ls - lists files in a directory (default) Usage:
ls <interface> [<dev[:part]> [directory]] - Lists files in directory [directory] of partition [part] on device type [interface] and instance [dev]. If U-Boot does not support this command, then update the composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash0. Program image to QSPI NOR flash: => sf erase 0x0 +$filesize && sf write 0xa0000000 0x0 $filesize Address 0x0 is the location of the composite firmware image in QSPI NOR flash. Refer Flash layout for new boot flow with TF-A for the complete flash memory layout. Boot from QSPI NOR flash1: => cpld reset altbank In boot log, you’ll see: Board: LS1046ARDB, boot from QSPI vBank 4 Ensure that SD card, USB flash drive, or SCSI hard disk installed with LSDK Ubuntu distribution is plugged into the board to boot the board to Ubuntu. If U-Boot does not find LSDK on a mass storage device, it will boot TinyDistro from lsdk_linux_arm64_ tiny.itb stored in QSPI NOR flash.
Getting RCW image: Getting UEFI image: Getting PPA image: Getting Linux kernel and DTB, and Root FS images: - Download Image , fsl-ls1043a-uefi-rdb.dtb and fsl-image-core-ls1043ardb.ext2.gz . - Copy Image and fsl-image-core-ls1043ardb.ext2.gz to the TFTP server directory. Getting GRUB2 image for AARCH64 and sample GRUB configuration: - Download grub image from this location. - Download sample grub configuration from here . Placing GRUB image on FAT formatted SD card: Install FAT32 file system on SD card - Use the DISKPART utililty on windows command prompt to format a SD card with FAT32 file system. Use the following snapshot for reference - Copy grubaa64.efi and ls1043a-grub.cfg to the SD card. Booting to UEFI prompt on LS1043a RDB Board: Boot to u-boot prompt from NOR flash bank 0 on LS1043a RDB. Setup serial port connection on host machine, to capture logs from the target LS1043a RDB board.. Reset the board to boot u-boot on bank 0, assuming that there is a valid u-boot image flashed on the primary bank 0. Copy Images to NOR flash alternate bank using u-boot commands sete uefi 'tftp 80000000 LS1043ARDB_EFI.fd; erase 0x64400000 0x644FFFFF ; cp.b 80000000 0x64400000 $filesize' sete rcw 'tftp 80000000 rcw_uefi_1500.bin; erase 0x64000000 0x640FFFFF ; cp.b 80000000 0x64000000 $filesize' sete ppa 'tftp 80000000 ppa.itb; erase 0x64500000 0x645FFFFF ; cp.b 80000000 0x64500000 $filesize' sete dtb 'tftp 80000000 fsl-ls1043a-uefi-rdb.dtb; erase 0x65B00000 0x65BFFFFF; cp.b 80000000 65B00000 $filesize' run uefi run ppa run rcw run dtb Note: The host machine is assumed to be having tftp server running, with the relevant files in place. The rcw, uefi, dtb and ppa images can also be found at compass link shared above. Note: Make sure SD card is inserted into the SD card slot on the board. Reset RDB to boot from NOR flash bank 4 => cpld reset altbank You should get UEFI boot prompt, as shown in the image below. Enter 2 to load Shell. On the Shell prompt run the following commands Shell> FS0: Shell> ls You should see a list of the grub executable and configurations files present on SD card. Booting Linux via PXE on LS1043a RDB: Note: atftpd or tftpd-hpa, is required as tftp server for PXE boot to work. tftpd is not supported. Load grub by entering the name of the grub executable. Shell> grubaa64.efi On the grub prompt, setup the server and client IPs for TFTP transfer. grub> set net_default_server=<server_ip> grub> net_add_addr eno0 efinet0 <client_ip> Load the grub configuration. grub> configfile (hd3,msdos1)/ls1043a-grub.cfg Grub menu is listed. Choose the entry for liinux boot. See the snapshot below for reference. Linux boot should start in around 7-8 minutes. Data transfer speed is around 100 KB/s.
In the U-Boot log, the names of the Ethernet interfaces are printed in the format <name>@<interface type>, for example, DPMAC2@xgmii. DPMAC is a DPAA2 object that identifies the physical interface. For Linux, in TinyDistro as well as in Ubuntu distribution, by default, only one MAC is enabled as a standard Kernel Ethernet Interface. This interface is named eth0 by default (or eth1 if PCI Express network interface card is discovered first). For details regarding creation of a DPAA2 network interface (DPNI) in Linux, see "LSDK Quick Start Guide for LS2088ARDB -> Bringing up DPAA2 network interfaces" in Layerscape Software Development Kit User Guide. The table below shows the mapping of Ethernet port names appearing on the chassis front panel with the port names in U-Boot and Linux for LS2088ARDB. In Linux, the mapping of Ethernet port names is not strict. The port names are mapped based on the order in which the Ethernet interfaces are created. As an example, consider a DPL file which defines only one DPMAC object, DPMAC3. When Linux starts, if a net device is created using DPMAC3, it will be labeled eth1 (assuming PCIe interface is eth0). Port name on chassis Port name in U-Boot Port name in Linux (tinyDistro and Ubuntu userland) Description ETH0 DPMAC5@xgmii eth0 by default (or eth1 if PCI Express network interface card is discovered first) XFI copper interface ETH1 DPMAC6@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface ETH2 DPMAC7@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface ETH3 DPMAC8@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface ETH4 DPMAC1@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface ETH5 DPMAC2@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface ETH6 DPMAC3@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface ETH7 DPMAC4@xgmii not enabled by default XFI copper interface
On LS2085 platform, the basic networking product performs autonomous IP forwarding and IPSEC on the AIOP, data path functions run mostly independent of the GPP software and only involve GPP when necessary. NADK(Network Acceleration Development Kit) is a complete user space development kit for networking applications. This IPSEC application is implemented in Linux user space using NADK framework, this application learns the Linux configuration through the netlink event notification and sends the configuration to AIOP DP using the respective NF APIs. The application invokes NF APIs to send configuration details to IPsec data path on the AIOP. 1. Overview and Architecture of the AIOP-NADK Based IPSEC Application 2. NADK Based GPP Listener Program Design 2.1 NADK APIs Introduction Used in the Application 2.2 Packet Processing in Multiple Threads Mode NADK Application 2.3 IPSEC XFRM Events monitored by the Listener 3. IPSEC Application communicates with AIOP through NF APIs 3.1 IPSEC provided features implemented at AIOP 3.2 IPSEC NF APIs Used to Configure AIOP 3.3 The process of add SPD policy in the IPSEC Application 4. Setup Networking Environment to Verify the IPSEC application
This document introduces a method to separate control plane and data plane between GPP(ARM) and AIOP based on different L4 protocols implemented in the AIOP software. So far, in the current MC version, this scenario could not be implemented from WRIOP using DPDMUX, so it is a good choice for users to separate the traffic in AIOP. 1. Basic Concept of DPAA2 Objects 2. AIOP Application to Implement Control in ARM and Data Plane in AIOP 3. Build AIOP Application Project with CodeWarrior 4. Running AIOP Application Program on LS2085ARDB